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Jane Stewart, PhD

Distinguished Professor Emeritus, Psychology


Behavioral and neurochemical studies of conditioning and sensitization to stimulant and opioid drugs and their role in drug self-administration and relapse. Studies of the effects of ovarian hormones on behavioral and neurochemical responses to drugs, stress, and brain injury.

Selected publications


Stewart, J. (2008)Review. Psychological and neural mechanisms of relapse. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, ‘B’, Biological Sciences, 363, 3147-3158.

Stewart, J. (2004) Pathways to relapse: factors controlling the reinitiation of drugseeking after abstinence. Nebr Symp Motiv. 50, 197-234. [abstract]

Stewart, J. (2003) Stress and relapse to drug seeking: studies in laboratory animals shed light on mechanisms and sources of long-term vulnerability. Am J Addict. 12(1),1-17. [abstract]

Leri, F., Bruneau, J., & Stewart, J. (2003) Understanding polydrug use: review of heroin and cocaine co-use. Addiction. 98(1), 7-22. [abstract]

Shaham, Y., Shalev, U., Lu, L., De Wit, H., & Stewart, J. (2003) The reinstatement model of drug relapse: history, methodology and major findings.Psychopharmacology (Berl). 168(1-2), 3-20. [abstract] [PDF]

Stewart, J. (2000)Pathways to relapse: the neurobiology of drug- and stress-induced relapse to drug taking. J Psychiatry Neurosci. 25(2), 125-136. [abstract]

Shaham, Y., Erb, S., & Stewart, J.(2000) Stress-induced relapse to heroin and cocaine seeking in rats: a review. Brain Res Brain Res Rev. 33(1), 13-33. [abstract] [PDF]

Flores, C. & Stewart, J. (2000) Basic fibroblast growth factor as a mediator of the effects of glutamate in the development of sensitization to stimulant drugs: studies in the rat. Psychopharmacology. 151(2-3), 152-165. [abstract] [PDF]

Altier, N. & Stewart, J. (1999) The role of dopamine in the nucleus accumbens in analgesia. Life Sci. 65(22), 2269-2287. [abstract] [PDF]

Stewart, J., de Wit, H., & Eikelboom, R. (1984) Role of unconditioned and conditioned drug effects in the self-administration of opiates and stimulants. Psychological Rev. 1984, 91(2), 251-268.[abstract]

Sensitization and long-lasting changes in the midbrain dopaminergic system

Paolone, G., Botreau, F., & Stewart, J. (2008)The facilitative effects of D-cycloserine on extinction of a cocaine-induced conditioned place preference can be long lasting and resistant to reinstatement. Psychopharmacology, on-line Aug 10.

Hood, S., Sorge, R. E., & Stewart, J. (2007)Chronic buprenorphine reduces the response to sucrose-associated cues in non food-deprived rats. Pharmacol Biochem Behav, 86(3), 566-575.

Leri, F., Sorge, R. E., Cummins, E., Woehrling, D., Pfaus, J. G., & Stewart, J. (2007)High-dose methadone maintenance in rats: effects on cocaine self-administration and behavioral side effects. Neuropsychopharmacology, 32, 2290-2300.

Sorge, R. E., & Stewart, J. (2006)The effects of chronic buprenorphine on intake of heroin and cocaine in rats and its effects on nucleus accumbens dopamine levels during self-administration. Psychopharmacology, 188, 28-41.

Sorge, R. E., & Stewart, J. (2006)The effects of long-term chronic buprenorphine treatment on the locomotor and nucleus accumbens dopamine response to acute heroin and cocaine in rats. Pharmacol Biochem Behav, 84, 300-305.

Botreau, F., Paolone, G., & Stewart, J. (2006)D-Cycloserine facilitates extinction of a cocaine-induced conditioned place preference. Behav Brain Res, 172, 173-178.

Sorge, R.E., & Stewart, J. (2005)The contribution of drug history and time since termination of drug taking to stress-induced cocaine seeking in rats. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 183(2), 210-217. [abstract] [PDF]

Sorge, R.E., Rajabi, H. & Stewart, J. (2005) Rats maintained chronically on buprenorphine show reduced heroin and cocaine seeking in tests of extinction and drug-induced reinstatement.Neuropsychopharmacology. 30(9), 1681-1692. [abstract]

Leri, F., Tremblay, A., Sorge, R. E., & Stewart, J. (2004) Methadone maintenance reduces heroin- and cocaine-induced relapse without affecting stress-induced relapse in a rodent model of poly-drug use. Neuropsychopharmacology. 29(7), 1312-1320. [abstract]

Capriles, N., Rodaros, D., Sorge, R. E., & Stewart, J. (2003) A role for the prefrontal cortex in stress- and cocaine-induced reinstatement of cocaine seeking in rats.Psychopharmacology (Berl). 168(1-2), 66-74. [abstract] [PDF]

Leri, F., Flores, J., Rajabi, H., & Stewart, J. (2003) Effects of cocaine in rats exposed to heroin. Neuropsychopharmacology. 28(12), 2102-2116. [abstract] [PDF]

Leri, F., Flores, J., Rodaros, D., & Stewart, J. (2002) Blockade of stress-induced but not cocaine-induced reinstatement by infusion of noradrenergic antagonists into the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis or the central nucleus of the amygdala. J Neurosci. 22(13), 5713-5718. [abstract] [PDF]

Erb, S., Salmaso, N., Rodaros, D., & Stewart, J. (2001) A role for the CRF-containing pathway from central nucleus of the amygdala to bed nucleus of the stria terminalis in the stress-induced reinstatement of cocaine seeking in rats. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 158(4), 360-365. [abstract] [PDF]

Leri, F. & Stewart, J. (2001) Drug-induced reinstatement to heroin and cocaine seeking: a rodent model of relapse in polydrug use. Exp Clin Psychopharmacol. 9(3), 297-306. [abstract]

Erb, S., Hitchcott, P.K., Rajabi, H., Mueller, D., Shaham, Y., & Stewart, J. (2000) Alpha-2 adrenergic receptor agonists block stress-induced reinstatement of cocaine seeking. Neuropsychopharmacology, 23(2), 138-150. [abstract]

Shaham, Y., Highfield, D., Delfs, J. Leung, S., & Stewart, J. (2000) Clonidine blocks stress-induced reinstatement of heroin seeking in rats: an effect independent of the locus coeruleus noradrenergic neurons. Eur J Neurosci. 12(1), 292-302. [abstract]

Mueller, D. & Stewart, J. (2000) Cocaine-induced conditioned place preference: reinstatement by priming injections of cocaine after extinction. Behav Brain Res. 115(1), 39-47. [abstract] [PDF]

Erb, S. & Stewart, J. (1999) A role for the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, but not the amygdala, in the effects of corticotropin-releasing factor on stress-induced reinstatement of cocaine seeking. J Neurosci. 19(20), RC35: 1-6. [abstract] [PDF]

Hormones, brain and behavior

Moroz, I. A., Rajabi, H., Rodaros, D., & Stewart, J. (2003) Effects of sex and hormonal status on astrocytic basic fibroblast growth factor-2 and tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactivity after medial forebrain bundle 6-hydroxydopamine lesions of the midbrain dopamine neurons. Neuroscience. 118(2), 463-476. [abstract] [PDF]

Stewart, J. & Rodaros, D. (1999) The effects of gonadal hormones on the development and expression of the stimulant effects of morphine in male and female rats. Behav Brain Res. 102(1-2), 89-98. [abstract]

Flores, C., Salmaso, N., Cain, S., Rodaros, D., & Stewart, J. (1999) Ovariectomy of adult rats leads to increased expression of astrocytic basic fibroblast growth factor in the ventral tegmental area and in dopaminergic projection regions of the entorhinal and prefrontal cortex. J Neurosci. 19(19), 8665-8673. [abstract] [PDF]

Circadian rhythms

Gavrila, A. M., Robinson, B., Hoy, J., Stewart, J., Bhargava, A., & Amir, S. (2008)Double-stranded RNA-mediated suppression of Period2 expression in the suprachiasmatic nucleus disrupts circadian locomotor activity in rats. Neuroscience, 154, 409-414.

Verwey, M., Khoja, Z., Stewart, J., and Amir, S. (2008)Region-specific modulation of PER2 expression in the limbic forebrain and hypothalamus by nighttime restricted feeding in rats. Neuroscience Letters, 440, 54-58.

Verwey, M., Khoja, Z., Stewart, J., & Amir, S. (2007)Differential regulation of the expression of Period2 protein in the limbic forebrain and dorsomedial hypothalamus by daily limited access to highly palatable food in food-deprived and free-fed rats. Neuroscience, 147, 277-285.

Waddington Lamont, E., Harbour, V. L., Barry-Shaw, J., Renteria Diaz, L., Robinson, B., Stewart, J., et al. (2007)Restricted access to food, but not sucrose, saccharine, or salt, synchronizes the expression of Period2 protein in the limbic forebrain. Neuroscience, 144, 402-411.

Segall, L. A., Perrin, J. S., Walker, C. D., Stewart, J., & Amir, S. (2006)Glucocorticoid rhythms control the rhythm of expression of the clock protein, Period2, in oval nucleus of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis and central nucleus of the amygdala in rats. Neuroscience, 140, 753-757.

Waddington-Lamont, E., Robinson, B., Stewart, J. and Amir, S. (2005) The central and basolateral nuclei of the amygdala exhibit diametrically opposite circadian rhythms in expression of the clock protein Period2. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 102(11), 4180-4184.[abstract] [PDF]

Waddington-Lamont, E., Renteria Diaz, L., Barry Shaw, J., Stewart, J. and Amir, S. (2005)Daily restricted feeding rescues a rhythm of period2 expression in the arrhythmic suprachiasmatic nucleus. Neuroscience. 132(2), 245-248.[abstract] [PDF]

Amir, S., Lamont, E. W., Robinson, B., & Stewart, J. (2004) A circadian rhythm in the expression of PERIOD2 protein reveals a novel SCN-controlled oscillator in the oval nucleus of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis. J Neurosci. 24(4), 781-790. [abstract] [PDF]

Amir, S., & Stewart, J. (1999) The effectiveness of light on the circadian clock is linked to its emotional value. Neuroscience. 88(2), 339-345. [abstract] [PDF]

Amir, S., & Stewart, J. (1996) Resetting of the circadian clock by a conditioned stimulus.Nature. 379(6565), 542-545. [abstract]

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