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Catherine Mulligan, PhD

Professor , Building, Civil, and Environmental Engineering
Distinguished Research Professor and former Concordia Research Chair in Geoenvironmental Sustainability (Tier I) , Building, Civil, and Environmental Engineering
Director, Concordia Institute for Water, Energy and Sustainable Systems

Catherine Mulligan, PhD
Office: S-EV 6187  
Engineering, Computer Science and Visual Arts Integrated Complex,
1515 St. Catherine W.
Phone: (514) 848-2424 ext. 7925


Dr. Mulligan specializes in environmental engineering. She has B.Eng. and M. Eng. degrees from the Department of Chemical Engineering, McGill University, Montréal (Québec) and a Ph.D., from the Department of Civil Engineering, at McGill University. After working at McGill and in industry for 16 years, she joined the Department of Building, Civil and Environmental Engineering at Concordia University as an Assistant Professor in 1999, and was promoted to Associate Professor in 2002 and full professor in 2008. She was awarded the Concordia Research Chair in Environmental Engineering in 2002 (Tier II and then Tier I until 2021).

Catherine Mulligan has B.Eng. and M.Eng. degrees in chemical engineering from McGill University, and a Ph.D. specializing in geoenvironmental engineering, also from McGill University, Montreal, Canada. She has gained more than 40 years of research experience in government, industrial, and academic environments. She  has worked for the Biotechnology Research Institute of the National Research Council and SNC Research Corp., a subsidiary of SNC‑Lavalin, Montreal, Canada. She then joined Concordia University, Montreal, Canada in the Department of Building, Civil and Environmental Engineering in 1999. She has taught courses in site remediation, environmental engineering, fate and transport of contaminants and geoenvironmental engineering, and she conducts research in remediation of contaminated soils, sediments and water. She held a Concordia Research Chair in Geoenvironmental Sustainability (Tier I) until 2021 and is Full Professor and Distinguished Research Professor. She has authored more than 135 refereed papers in various journals, holds three patents and has supervised to completion more than 75 graduate students.

She is the Director of the Concordia Institute of Water, Energy and Sustainable Systems.  The Institute trains students in sustainable development practices and promote research into new systems, technologies and solutions for water, energy and resource conservation. On June 26, 2012,  the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC) announced that Concordia had received $ 1,643,700 in support of research and training via an Institute in Water, Energy and Sustainability. This was the first Concordia project to be awarded funding through NSERC’s Collaborative Research and Training Experience (CREATE) program.

Dr. Mulligan is a Fellow of the Royal Society of Canada, Canadian Academy of Engineering, Engineering Institute of Canada (EIC) and the Canadian Society for Civil Engineering and the winner of the Geoenvironmental Award and the A.G. Stermac Award of the CGS, the John B. Sterling Medal of the EIC, the PEOPLE Award for Career Achievements,  ASTM editorial award and several Concordia awards (the Provost Circle of Distinction, Concordia Sustainability Champion, Petro Canada Young Innovator Award (twice)).

Professional affiliations

  • Order of Engineers of Quebec
  • Professional Engineers Ontario
  • Canadian Society of Civil Engineering (Past President, Honours and Fellows Committee member, former chair of Environmental Division and Sustainable Development Committee)
  • Canadian Geotechnical Society (former chair Sustainable Geotechnic Committee and VP Communications)
  • Canadian Society of Chemical Engineering
  • American Society of Civil Engineers
  • International Water Association
  • Canadian Institute of Mining, Metallurgy and Petroleum (CIM)
  • ISSMGE, TC 215 Environmental Geotechnics Committee member  and TC 307, Sustainability in Geotechnical Engineering, Corresponding member)
  • ASTM (D18 and E5 committee member)
  • Section Editor, Journal of Environmental Engineering (Frontiers), Environmental Impact Assessment (2022- ) 
  • Chief Editor, Waste, Journal of MDPI (2023- )
  • Editorial Board Member, Water MDPI (2021-)
  • Editorial Board Member, Engineering, Remediation, Restoration Section of Toxics (2023- )
  • Editorial Board Member, Journal of Environmental Engineering and Science (2018-)
  • Editorial Board Member, Environmental Geotechnics (2013-) 
  • Advisory Board Member, Korean Journal of Civil Engineering (2023-) 


  • Biosurfactant treatment of contaminated soils, wastes and sediments and water
  • Treatment and management of metal-contaminated soils, sediments and  mining wastes
  • Bioremediation of hydrocarbons
  • Removal of nutrients via annamox processes
  • In situ processes for management of surface water and contaminated sediment
  • Anaerobic treatment of wastewater
  • Energy from pressure reduced osmosis (PRO)
  • Treatment by membranes of wastewaters
  • Development of sustainability indicators

Teaching activities


CIVI 469 Geoenvironmental Engineering
CIVI 6491 Engineering Aspects of Site Remediation
CIVI 691 Sustainable Engineering: Principles and Implementation



  • C.N. Mulligan, Water-Energy Nexus, in preparation for submission in 2024 Taylor &Francis 
  • C.N. Mulligan, M.Fukue, R.N.Yong, Sustainable Practices in Geoenvironmental Engineering, 3rd Edition, Taylor & Francis, in preparation for submission in 2024.
  • C.N. Mulligan, Sustainable Engineering, Principles and Implementation, Taylor & Francis ,
  • R.N.Yong and C.N. Mulligan Natural and Enhanced Attenuation of Contaminants in Soils, 2nd Edition, CRC Press, 2019  Natural and Enhanced Attenuation of Contaminants in Soils, Second Edit (
  • R.N. Yong, C.N. Mulligan and M. Fukue. Sustainable Practices in Geoenvironmental Engineering, 2nd Edition, CRC Press, Taylor & Francis, Boca Raton, 2014.
  • C.N. Mulligan and S.S. Li (Editors), Selected Technical Papers STP 1554 Contaminated Sediments: Restoration of Aquatic Environment, 5th Volume, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2012, 
  • C. N. Mulligan S.K. Sharma, A. Mudhoo, co- editors, Biosurfactants: Research Trends & Applications, CRC Press, Taylor & Francis, Boca Raton, 2012.
  • C. N. Mulligan, M.Fukue and Y. Sato. Sediments: Contamination and Sustainable Remediation, Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 2010.
  • R.N. Yong, C.N. Mulligan and M. Fukue. Geoenvironmental Sustainability. CRC Press, Taylor & Francis, Boca Raton, 2006.
  • R.N. Yong, and C.N. Mulligan, Natural Attenuation of Contaminants in Soils, CRC Press, Boca Raton, 2004.
  • C.N. Mulligan, Environmental Biotreatment, Government Institutes, Rockville, Maryland, 2002.

Refereed publications (2006- present)

  • S. M. Wilcox, C.N. Mulligan, C.M. Neculita, Microbially Induced Calcium Carbonate Precipitation as a Bioremediation Technique for Mining Waste. Toxics 12, 107.  (2024)

  • T. Torsha, C.N. Mulligan, Anaerobic Treatment of Food Waste with Biogas Recirculation under Psychrophilic Temperature. Waste 2024, 2, 58-71.

  • H. Bi, C. N Mulligan, K. Lee, C. An, J.Wen, X. Yang, L Lyu, Z. Qu, Preparation, characteristics, and performance of the microemulsion system in the removal of oil from beach sand Marine Pollution Bulletin, 193, 115234(2023)

  • H. Bi, C. N. Mulligan, B. Zhang, M. Biagi, C. An, X. Yang, L. Lyu, X. Chen (2023). A Review on Recent Development in the Use of Surface Washing Agents for shoreline Cleanup After Oil Spills. Ocean and Coastal Management (Elsevier). 245(106877) 245, DOI10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2023.106877 (2023)

  • S. Bolan, L. P. Padhye, C. N. Mulligan, E. Ritore Alonso,R. Saint-Fort, T. Jasemizad, C. Wang,T. Zhang, J. Rinklebe, H. Wang, K. H.M. Siddique, M.B. Kirkham, N. Bolan. Surfactant-enhanced mobilization of persistent organic pollutants: Potential for soil and sediment remediation and unintended consequences Journal of Hazardous Materials 443 (2023) 130189,

  • K. A. Vu and C.N. Mulligan. Remediation of organic contaminated soil by Fe-based nanoparticles and surfactants: A review" Environmental Technology Reviews, DOI:10.1080/21622515.2023.2177200. 12(1): 60-82. (2023)

  • A.C. Pereira, C.N. Mulligan. Practices for Eutrophic Shallow Lake Water Remediation and Restoration: A critical literature review. WATER, 15(12)(2023). DOI 10.3390/w15122270.

  • H.F. Bi, C.N. Mulligan, K. Lee, C.J. An, J.Y. Wen, X.H.Yang, L. Lyu, and Z.N. Qu,. (2023). Preparation, characteristics and performance of the microemulsion system in the removal of oil from beach sand. MARINE POLLUTION BULLETIN, DOI 10.1016/j.marpolbul.2023. 193(115234)

  • S.Binte Rafiq Era, C.N Mulligan Removal of Nutrients from Water Using Biosurfactant Micellar-Enhanced Ultrafiltration. Molecules. 28 (1559)Doi:10.3390/molecules28041559. (2023).

  • M.P. Nguyen and C.N. Mulligan Study on the influence of water composition on iron nail corrosion and arsenic removal performance of the Kanchan arsenic filter (KAF). Journal of Hazardous Materials Advances DOI 10.1016/j.hazadv.2023.100285. (2023).

  • K.A. Vu and C.N Mulligan. An Overview on the Treatment of Oil Pollutants in Soil Using Synthetic and Biological Surfactant Foam and Nanoparticles. Int. J. Mol.Sci. 24,(1916)(2023).

  • M. Fukue, Z. Lechowicz, Y.Fujimori, K.Emori, C.N. Mulligan. Inhibited and retarded behavior by Ca2 and Ca2 /OD loading rate on ureolytic bacteria in MICP process. MATERIALS, DOI10.3390/ma16093357. 16(9) 3357(2023).

  • A.C Pereira, C.N. Mulligan, D.P., Veetil, S. Bhat,. (2023).An In-Situ Geotextile Filtration Method for Suspended Solids Attenuation and Algae Suppression in a Canadian Eutrophic Lake. Water, 15(441)

  • K. A. Vu and C.N. Mulligan Remediation of  organic contaminated soil by Fe-based nanoparticles and surfactants: A review" Environmental Technology Reviews, 12:1, 60- 82,DOI: 10.1080/21622515.2023.2177200 (2023)
  •  H. Bi, C. An, C. N. Mulligan, Z. Chen, K. Lee, J. Wen, Z. Qu, and X. Chen, Application of Phase-Selective Organogelators (PSOGs) for Marine Oil Spill Remediation, Journal of Marine Science and Engineering (MDPI), 10(8), 1111 (2022).
  • H. Bi, C. An, C.N. Mulligan, K. Zhang, K. LeeR. Yue. Treatment of oiled beach sand using a green and responsive washing fluid with nonionicsurfactant-modified nanoclay, Journal of Hazardous Materials (Elsevier), 436, 129228 (2022).

  • S. Hazeri and C.N. Mulligan Energy Harvesting by Piezo Tires and Their Life Cycle Assessment, AIP Advances, May 2022. 12(6) Article Number 065112, DOI 10.1063/5.0086778 

  • K.A. Vu, C.N. Mulligan, Utilization of a  biosurfactant foam/nanoparticle mixture  for treatment of oil pollutants in soil,  ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE AND POLLUTION RESEARCH, 29(59):88618-88629 DOI 10.1007/s11356-022-21938-9, (2022)

  • M. Fukue, Z. Lechowicz, Y. Fujimori, K. Emori, C. N. Mulligan Fundamentals of a Blending Design for a Biocement Solution. Materials. 15(5),1951 May 2022. DOI10.3390/ma15051951

  • E. Zadeh, K. Touati, C.N. Mulligan, J.R. McCutcheon, M.S. Rahaman. Closed-loop pressure retarded osmosis draw solutions and their regeneration processes: A review RENEWABLE & SUSTAINABLE ENERGY REVIEWS 159, 112191 DOI 10.1016/j.rser.2022.112191 (2022)

  • K A Vu and C.N. Mulligan. Remediation of oil-contaminated soil using Fe/Cu nanoparticles and biosurfactants, ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY, 44(22):3446-3458 DOI: 10.1080/09593330.2022.2061381 (2023)

  • N. Xiao, J.J. Huang, C.N. Mulligan The dynamics of soil microbial community structure and nitrogen metabolism influenced by agriculture practices and rainfall, APPLIED SOIL ECOLOGY, 172, 104351, DOI 10.1016/j.apsoil.2021.104351(2022)

  • H. F. Bi, CJ An, C.N. Mulligan, K.Q. Zhang, K. Lee, R.Y. Yue, Treatment of oiled beaches and using a green and responsive washing fluid with nonionic surfactant-modified nanoclay, JOURNAL OF CLEANER PRODUCTION, 333, 130122, DOI 10.1016/j.jclepro.2021.13012

  •  J. Wang, J.J. Huang. & C. Mulligan, Seasonal source identification and source-specific health risk assessment of pollutants in road dust. Environ Sci Pollut Res (2021). 
  • E. Abbasi-Garravand, C.N. Mulligan Feasibility of Pressure-Retarded Osmosis for Electricity Generation at Low Temperatures. Membranes. 2021; 11(8):556.

  • H. Bi, C. An, C.N. Mulligan, A. Wang, B. Zhang and K. Lee Exploring the Use of Alginate Hydrogel Coating as A New Initiative for Emergent Shoreline Oiling Prevention, Science of the Total Environment, 797, 25 November 2021, 149234

  • H.Bi, C. An, E. Owens, K. Lee, Z. Chen, C. Mulligan, E. Taylor, M.Boufadel, A framework for the evaluation and selection of shoreline surface washing agents in oil spill response, Journal of Environmental Management, 287, 1 June 2021, 112346, (2021)

  • D. Palakkeel Veetil, E.Castillo Arriagada, C. N. Mulligan, S. Bhat. Filtration for improving surface water quality of a eutrophic lake, Journal of Environmental Management,  279, 1,111766, (2021)

  • C.N. Mulligan. Sustainable Remediation of  Contaminated Soil Using Biosurfactants, Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology, March 2021, Volume 9, Article 635196, (2021) doi:10.3389/fbioe.2021.635196

  • N. Saborimanesh, L. Yerushalmi, C. N.Mulligan. Fast Recovery of a Single-Stage Partial Nitrification/Anammox-Based Hybrid Bioreactor Impacted by a Sudden Lactose Shock Load. Bioresource Technology Reports,12,100586,,

  • K.Touati, H. S. Usman, C. N. Mulligan, Md. S. Rahaman. Energetic and economic feasibility of a combinedmembrane-based process for sustainable water and energy systems, Applied Energy, Volume 264, 15 April 2020, 114699,,

  • F. Arab and C.N. Mulligan, REMOVAL OF ARSENICBY SOPHOROLIPIDS FROM MINE TAILINGS, Environmental Geotechnics,7(3)  175- 188   (2020)

  • B.Hosseinpour, N. Saborimanesh, L. Yerushalmi, D. Walsh, and C.N. Mulligan.Start-up of oxygen-limited autotrophic partial nitrification-anammox process for treatment of nitrite-free wastewater in a single-stage hybrid bioreactor, Environmental Technology,Published online: 04 Aug 2019,

  • N. Saborimanesh, L. Yerushalmi, D. Walsh,and C.N. Mulligan, Pilot-scale application of a single-stage hybrid airlift BioCAST bioreactor for treatment of ammonium from nitrite-limited wastewater by a partialnitrification/anammox process, Environmental Science  and  Pollution  Research,  26(25),  25573-25582  DOI:10.1007/s11356-019-05754-2, online, July 2, 2019

  • F. Arab and C.N. Mulligan. Aneco-friendly method for heavy metal removal from mine tailings, Environmental Science and Pollution Research. 25(16): 16202-16216 (2018)

  • N. Saborimanesh and C.N. Mulligan, Investigation on The Dispersion of Weathered Biodiesel,Diesel, and Light Crude Oil in the Presence of Sophorolipid Biosurfactant in Seawater. ASCE's Journal of Environmental Engineering. Vol. 144, No. 5, May2018., Article Number: 4018028 Published: MAY 2018

  • E.Abbasi-Garravand, C.N. Mulligan, C.B.Laflamme, and G. Clairet Investigation of the Fouling Effect on a CommercialSemi-Permeable Membrane in the Pressure Retarded Osmosis (PRO) Process Separation and Purification Technology,  193, 81-90 (2018)

  • Y. Babaee,C.N. Mulligan, and Md. S; Rahaman Arsenic immobilization in soil usingstarch-stabilized Fe/Cu nanoparticles: a case study in treatment of a chromated copper arsenate (CCA)-contaminated soil at lab scale Y, JOURNAL OF SOILS AND SEDIMENTS 18(4), 1610-1619, 2018

  • Y.Babaee, C.N.Mulligan and S. Rahaman. Removal of Arsenic (III) and Arsenic (V) from Aqueous Solutions Through Adsorption by Fe/Cu Nanoparticles, Journal of Chemical Technology and Biotechnology 93(1): 63-71  (2018) DOI: 10.1002/jctb.5320

  • E. Abbasi-Garravand, C.N. Mulligan, C.B. Laflamme, and G. Clairet,Identification of the type of foulants and investigation of the membrane cleaning methods for PRO processes in osmotic power application,DESALINATION Volume: 421 Special Issue: SI, 135-148 (2017) DOI information: 10.1016/j.desal.2017.01.038

  • Y. Babaee, C.N. Mulligan, and Md.S.Rahaman, Stabilization of Fe/Cunanoparticles by starch and efficiency of arsenic adsorption from aqueous solutions . ENVIRONMENTAL EARTH SCIENCES,76(19) Number: 650  (2017)

  • A. H. Moghaddam, C. N. Mulligan Conversion of CCA-treated wood to ethanol:a method to reduce leaching of metals from disposed treated wood prior to disposal J.Mater Cycles Waste Manag, 19(3), 1008-1016, DOI 10.1007/s10163-016-0561-5 (2017)

  • M. Pourabadehei and C.N. Mulligan Selection of an appropriate management strategy for contaminated sediment: A case study at a shallow contaminated harbour in Quebec, Canada, Environmental Pollution, 219, 846-857 (2016), DOI: 0.1016/j.envpol.2016.08.012

  • M.  Madani-Hosseini,  C.  N.  Mulligan  and  S.  Barrington.  Acidification  of In-Storage-Psychrophilic-Anaerobic-Digestion (ISPAD) process to reduce ammonia volatilization: Model development and validation Waste Management, 52, 104-111 (2016)

  • E. Abbasi-Garravand C. N. Mulligan · C. B. Laflamme · G. Clairet, Role of two different pretreatment methods in osmotic power (salinity gradient energy) generation, Renewable Energy 96, 98-119 (2016) DOI: 10.1016/j.renene.2016.04.031

  • S.Javan Roshtkhari and C.N. Mulligan. Application of Microbial Culture and Rhamnolipid for Improving the Sedimentation of Oil Sand Tailings. J Bioremed Biodeg7: 358. doi:10.4172/2155-6199.1000358(2016)

  • C. N. Mulligan and M. Sharifi-Nistanak , Treatment of sludge from a wastewater treatment,  International Journal of GEOMATE, July, 2016, Vol. 11, Issue 23, pp. 2194-2199, Geotec., Const. Mat. &Env., ISSN: 2186-2982(Print), 2186-2990(Online), Japan

  • M. Pourabadehei and C.N. Mulligan.Effect of the Resuspension Technique on Distribution of the Heavy Metals in Sediment and Suspended Particulate Matter. Chemosphere 153: 58-67(2016),

  • M. Pourabadehei, C. N. Mulligan Resuspension of sediment, a new approach for remediation of contaminated sediment, Environmental Pollution, 213, 63-75 (2016).

  • N. Saborimanesh,C.N. Mulligan (2015) Effect of Sophorolipid Biosurfactant on Oil Biodegradation by the Natural Oil-Degrading Bacteria on the Weathered Biodiesel, Diesel and Light Crude Oil. J Bioremed Biodeg 6: 314. doi:10.4172/2155-6199.1000314

  • M. Madani-Hosseini, S. Barrington and C. N. Mulligan, Digestion (ISPAD)process. Part I: Model Development and Calibration, Environmental Management and Sustainable Development,  2015,Vol. 4, No, 2, http://dx.doi:10.5296/emsd.v4i2.8116

  • M.   Madani-Hosseini    S.    Barrington    and    C.    N.    Mulligan,I n-Storage-Psychrophilic-Anaerobic-Digestion (ISPAD) process. Part II: Model Validation, accepted by Environmental Management and Sustainable Development, 2015, Vol. 4,pp. 193-203, No, 2,

  • I.Ara and C.N. Mulligan, Reduction of Chromium in  Water and Soil Using a Rhamnolipid Biosurfactant (2015) GeotechnicalEngineering Journal of the SEAGS & AGSSEA Vol. 46 No.4, 25-31.

  • H. Elfaki, A.; Hawari, and C. Mulligan,Enhancement of multi-media filter performance using talc as a new filter aid material: Mechanistic study JOURNAL OF INDUSTRIAL AND ENGINEERING CHEMISTRY  24: 71-78 (2015)

  • M. Madani-Hosseini,  C.  N  Mulligan,  S  Barrington.   Microbial  kinetic  for In-Storage-Psychrophilic Anaerobic    Digestion (ISPAD). Journal of Environmental Management 146: 59-68 (2014)

  • E. Abbasi  -Garravand, C.N. Mulligan,Using micellar enhanced ultrafiltration and reduction techniques for   removal of Cr(VI) and Cr(III) from  water,  SEPARATION AND PURIFICATION   TECHNOLOGY  132: 505-512(2014)

  • S. Wang, C. N Mulligan,.Comparing the Effects of a Biosurfactant and a Humic Acidon Arsenic Mobilization from Mine Tailings JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING  140, Article Number: 04014021 (2014) 

  • M. Alimahmoodi, L. Yerushalmi, and C.N. Mulligan. Mixing characteristics and liquid circulation in a new multi-environment bioreactor",  Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering,36(8): 1043-1052 (2013)
  • L. Yerushalmi, M. Alimahmoodi and C.N. Mulligan. Treatment of Synthetic Wastewater and Hog Waste with  Reduced Sludge Generation by the Multi-Environment BioCAST Technology. Water Science and Technology (SCI). 67(3) : 587-593 (2013)

  • M.  Alimahmoodi,  L. Yerushalmi and C. N.Mulligan, Simultaneous Removal of Carbon, Nitrogen and Phosphorus in a Multi-zone Wastewater Treatment System, 12. 88( 6), 1136-1143, (2013).

  • S. Wang and C.N. Mulligan, Effects of Three Low-Molecular-Weight Organic Acids (LMWOAs) and pH  on the Mobilization of Arsenic and Heavy Metals (Cu, Pb and Zn) from Mine Tailings, Accepted Environmental Geochemistry and Health, Accepted  April 25, 2012.
  • M.  Alimahmoodi,  L. Yerushalmi and C. N.Mulligan, Development of biofilm on geotextile in a new multi-zone wastewater treatment system for simultaneous removal of COD, nitrogen and phosphorus.  Bioresource Technology 107,  78-86 DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2011.12.034 (2012)
  • R.A. Karim, C.N. Mulligan and M. Fukue, Preliminary evaluation of a sediment resuspension technique for reduction of phosphorus in lake water. Contaminated Sediments: Restoration of Aquatic Environment, STP 1445,  45- 65 (2012)
  • M. Fukue, K. Uehara, H. Kouge, , Y. Sato, Toru Harada, M. Yamana, and C. N. Mulligan, Re-suspension technique for improving organic rich sediment rich sediment-water quality in a shallow sea area. Marine Georesources and Geotechnology. 30:3, 222-233 (2012)
  • Y. Guo, C. N. Mulligan, M-P Nieh. An unusual morphological transformation of rhamnolipid aggregates induced by concentration and addition of styrene: A small angle neutron scattering (SANS) study.   Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects (SCI), 373( 1-3) 42-50 (2011).
  • M. Alimahmoodi, and C. N. Mulligan. Optimization of the anaerobic treatment of a waste stream from an enhanced oil recovery process. Bioresource Technology (SCI), 102 (2) 690-696 (2011).
  • M.A. M. El Zeftawy, C. N. Mulligan. Use of rhamnolipid to remove heavy metals from wastewater by micellar-enhanced ultrafiltration (MEUF).  Separation and Purification Technology (SCI), 77(1, 2)  120-127 (2011)
  • Md. R. I. Chowdhury, C. N. Mulligan. Biosorption of arsenic from contaminated water by anaerobic biomass.  Journal of Hazardous Materials (SCI),  190, 486-492 (2011)
  •  M. Fukue and  C. N. Mulligan. Equations of State in Soil Compression Based on Statistical Mechanics. Soils and Foundations (SCI) 50,  336-337 DOI: 10.3208/sandf.50.336  (2010)
  • M. Fukue, Y. Fujimori, Y. Sato, T. Nakagawa, C.N. Mulligan Evidence of the production and dissolution of carbonate phases in bentonite formations. Applied Clay Science (SCI), 47(1-2) 133-138 (2010).
  • C.N. Mulligan, Recent Advances in the Environmental Applications of Biosurfactants, Curr. Opin. Coll. Interfac. Sci.(SCI) 14, 372-378 (2009)
  • T. Inoue, M. Fukue, C.N. Mulligan and K. Uehara. In situ removal of contaminated suspended solids from a pond by filtration, Ecological Engineering (SCI), 35, 1249-1254 (2009).
  • S. Wang and C.N. Mulligan. Arsenic mobilization from mine tailings in the presence of a biosurfactant Applied Geochemistry (SCI), 24, 928-935 (2009).
  • S. Wang, and C. N. Mulligan Effect of natural organic matter on arsenic mobilization from mine tailings Journal of Hazardous Materials (SCI), 168, 721-726 (2009).
  • M. Fukue and C.N. Mulligan. Development of a theoretical approach for prediction of soil compression behaviour. Soils Foundations,49(1),99-114 (2009).
  • T. Inoue, C.N. Mulligan, E.M. Zadeh and M. Fukue, Effect of contaminated suspended soils in water and sediment qualities and their treatment, J. ASTM International. 6(3), pages 1-11, Paper ID JAI102185.(2009)
  • S. Wang and C.N. Mulligan. Rhamnolipid biosurfactant-enhanced soil flushing for the removal of arsenic and heavy metals from mine tailings. Process Biochemistry. 44(3), 296-301 (2009).
  • S. Wang and C.N. Mulligan. Enhanced mobilization of arsenic and heavy metals from mine tailings by humic acid. Chemosphere (SCI), 74(2), 274-279 (2009)
  • C. N. Mulligan, R.N. Yong and M. Fukue, Some effects of microbial activity on the evolution of clay-based buffer properties in underground repositories, Long-term performance of smectic clays embedding canisters with highly radioactive waste, Applied Clay Science (SCI), 42, 331-335 (2009).
  • C. N. Mulligan   N. Davarpanah, M. Fukue and T.Inoue. Filtration of contaminated suspended solids for the treatment of surface water. Chemosphere, 74(6), 779-786 (2009)
  • H. Massara and C.N. Mulligan Hexavalent Chromium Removal by Viable, Granular Anaerobic Biomass, Bioresource Technology (SCI),  99,  8637-8642  (2008).
  • S. Wang and C.N. Mulligan. Speciation of Inorganic Arsenic in Solid Phases and Surface Complexation Modeling. Environment International (SCI), 34, 867-879, (2008).
  • B. Dahrazma, C.N. Mulligan and M-P. Nieh, Effects of additives on the structure of rhamnolipid (biosurfactant): A small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) study, J. Colloid Interface Sci (SCI), 319, 590-593 (2008).
  • M. Alimahmoodi and C. N.  Mulligan. Anaerobic bioconversion of CO2 to biogas in an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor. Journal of Air and Waste Management Association (SCI), 58, 95-103, (2008).
  • A.Hajizadeh Moghaddam and C. N. Mulligan, Leaching of heavy metals from copper, chromated copper arsenate treated wood, Waste Management (SCI) 28, 628-637 (2008).
  • A H. Hawari and C. N. Mulligan. Effect of the presence of lead on the biosorption of copper, cadmium and nickel by anaerobic biomass. Process Biochemistry (SCI), 42, 1546-1552, (2007).
  • B. Dahrazma and C. N. Mulligan. Investigation of the removal of heavy metals from sediments using rhamnolipid in a continuous flow configuration. Chemosphere (SCI) 69, 705-711(2007).
  • M. Fukue, C. N. Mulligan, Y.  Sato and T. Fujikawa.  Effects of organic suspended solids and their sedimentation on the surrounding sea area. Environmental Pollution (SCI), 149, 70-78 (2007)
  • H. Massara, C.N. Mulligan, and J. Hadjinicolaou.  Effect of Rhamnolipids on Chromium Contaminated Soil"  Soil & Sediment Contamination: an International Journal (SCI), 16, 1-14, (2007).
  • S. Wang and C.N. Mulligan, Natural attenuation processes for remediation of arsenic contaminated soils and groundwater, J. Hazard. Material. B138, 459-470 (2006).
  • S. Wang and C.N. Mulligan. Occurrence of Arsenic Contamination in Canada: Sources, Behavior and Distribution, Science of the Total Environment, 366, 701-721, (2006).
  • S. Wang and C.N. Mulligan. Effect of Natural Organic Matter on Arsenic Release from Soils and Sediments into Groundwater.  Environmental Geochemistry and Health.  28, 197-214 (2006).
  • B. Dahrazma and C.N. Mulligan. Evaluation of the removal of heavy metals from contaminated sediments in batch and continuous tests with selective sequential extraction, ASTM STP 1482, 200-209 (2006). Also online in Journal of ASTM International  Paper ID JAI13337, Vol. 3, No. 7.
  • C.N. Mulligan and R.N. Yong. Natural attenuation of sediments. ASTM STP 1482, 210- 222 (2006). Also online in Journal of ASTM International  Paper ID JAI13338, Vol. 3, No. 7.
  • C.N. Mulligan and S. Wang. Remediation of a heavy metal contaminated soil by a rhamnolipid foam, Engineering Geology, 85(1-2), 75-81 (2006).
  • A, H. Hawari and C.N. Mulligan. Heavy metals uptake mechanisms in a fixed column by calcium-treated anaerobic biomass.  Process Biochemistry, 41(1) 187-198 (2006).
  • A. H Hawari and C.N. Mulligan. Biosorption of cadmium, copper, lead, and nickel by anaerobic granular biomass. Bioresource Technology, 97(4) 692-700 (2006)

Other frequently cited articles

  • C.N.  Mulligan. Environmental applications for biosurfactants. Environmental Pollution. 133, 183-198.(2005)
  • C.N Mulligan and R.N. Yong, Natural attenuation of contaminated soil, Environmental International 30, 587-601 (2004).
  • C.N. Mulligan, R.N. Yong, and B.F. Gibbs. An evaluation of technologies for the heavy metal remediation of Dredged Sediments.  Journal of Hazardous Materials. 85, 145-163 (2001).
  • C.N. Mulligan, R.N.Yong and B.F. Gibbs. Heavy metal removal from sediments by biosurfactants Journal of Hazardous Materials, 85, 111-125 (2001).
  • C.N. Mulligan, R.N. Yong and B.F. Gibbs, Remediation technologies for metal-contaminated soils and sediments: An evaluation. Engineering Geology 60(1-4), 193-207 (2001).
  • C.N. Mulligan, R.N. Yong and B.F.  Gibbs. Surfactant-enhanced remediation of contaminated soil: A review. Engineering Geology 60(1-4), 371-380 (2001).
  • C.N. Mulligan, R.N. Yong,  B.F.Gibbs,  S. James and H.P.J. Bennett. Metal removal from contaminated soil and sediments by the biosurfactant surfactin, Environmental Science and Technology, 33, 3812-3820 (1999).
  • C.N. Mulligan, R.N. Yong and B.F. Gibbs. Removal of heavy metals from contaminated soil and sediments using the biosurfactant surfactin. J. Soil Contamination, 8(2), 231-254 (1999).
  • C.N. Mulligan,  R.N. Yong and B.F. Gibbs. On the use of biosurfactants for the removal of heavy metals from oil-contaminated soil. Environmental Progress, 18(1) (1999)
  • C.N. Mulligan and B.F. Gibbs.  Recovery of biosurfactants by ultrafiltration. J. Chem. Tech. Biotech. 47, 23-29 (1990).
  • C. N. Mulligan, and B.F. Gibbs. Correlation of nitrogen metabolism with biosurfactant production by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 55, 3016-3019 (1989).
  • C.N. Mulligan, G. Mahmourides and B.F. Gibbs. The influence of phosphate metabolism on biosurfactant production by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. J. Biotech. 12, 199-210 (1989).
  • J.D. Sheppard, and C.N. Mulligan.  The production of surfactin by Bacillus subtilis grown on peat hydrolysates.  Appl. Microbiol. Biotech., 27, 110-116 (1987).
  • C.N. Mulligan, D.G. Cooper and R.J. Neufeld.  Selection of microbes producing biosurfactants on media without hydrocarbons. J. Ferm. Technol. 62, 311-314 (1984).

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