I/We would like to begin by acknowledging that Concordia University is located on unceded Indigenous lands. The Kanien’kehá:ka Nation is recognized as the custodians of the lands and waters on which we gather today. Tiohtià:ke/Montréal is historically known as a gathering place for many First Nations. Today, it is home to a diverse population of Indigenous and other peoples. We respect the continued connections with the past, present and future in our ongoing relationships with Indigenous and other peoples within the Montreal community.
Throughout our history, Concordia has sustained relationships with Indigenous peoples and communities on the Island of Tiohtià:ke or Montréal and its surrounding area. The Concordia Indigenous Directions Leadership Group is currently developing a history section on the Indigenous Directions Hub to depict and celebrate many of the occasions and collaborations that we have shared. The following is a brief history and explanation of the Territorial Acknowledgment upon which we hope to build.
The Concordia community has developed many versions of Territorial Acknowledgements, practices, and gestures that continue to foster meaningful and respectful relationships with Indigenous community members, knowledge keepers, and collaborative partners. The Territorial Acknowledgement that we are practicing today is grounded in that history. Many members of Concordia’s staff, faculty, students, and community partners have made a contribution to the discussion, wording, and rationale behind it. Our Acknowledgement is built from cumulative efforts of many minds from diverse backgrounds and we hope to keep an on-going dialogue with all of our stakeholders.
How and why we worded the Acknowledgement this way, line by line
This specific version of the Territorial Acknowledgement was primarily authored by Wahéhshon Shiann Whitebean and Dr. Karl S. Hele, with significant contributions at the final stages from Dr. Louellyn White. The final draft was agreed upon unanimously and passed by the Indigenous Directions Leadership Group on February 16, 2017.
We debated and discussed variations of this statement that included naming a number of First Nations and Indigenous communities that are rooted in the Island of Montréal and surrounding area. Many First Peoples claim the land and waterways as a homeland, traditional territory or birthplace of their people since time immemorial. This includes, but may not be limited to, the Kanien’kehá:ka (Mohawk) of the Haudenosaunee Confederacy, Huron/Wendat, Abenaki, and Anishinaabeg (Algonquin). It is not our role to offer a determination of claim, instead we offer recognition and support of all Indigenous peoples and Nations who have and continue to make these lands and waters their homes. We kept the word “unceded” since there are no agreements or treaties that have transferred title from any Indigenous Nation to Settler ownership or control; the land was occupied without permission. This also demonstrates that we recognize the injustices that are part of the colonial history of this place and that Concordia boldly supports and stands in solidarity with the Indigenous members of our community.
Many Indigenous peoples, communities, and Nations helped to build the foundation of Tiohtià:ke. However, it is understood and widely supported that the Kanien’kehá:ka have a strong historic and ongoing presence in the territory with two communities bordering Montréal: Kahnawà:ke and Kanehsatá:ke. This is also in consideration of the oral tradition/history of the island that the Kanien’kehá:ka Nation has passed from generation to generation. We must recognize the role of the Kanien’kehá:ka in protecting and caring for the lands and waters that we share and enjoy today. Their stewardship is a model for how we must collectively respect our natural environment and community as a whole.
The historic and current presence of two Kanien’kehá:ka communities is acknowledged by the use of the place name “Tiohtià:ke,” an abbreviation of “Teionihtiohtià:kon” which loosely translates as “where the group divided/parted ways.” It is here “where the group divided/parted ways” that formed a natural stopping point for First Nations’ travellers.
Thus the region since time immemorial has served as a gathering place which marked the area a key site of diplomacy, as well as for the exchange of culture, language, and goods. It is this centrality and importance of the region that drew the first settlers to the island. The importance of Montréal/ Tiohtià:ke for First Nations and Settlers was demonstrated in 1701 when a Great Peace was negotiated and signed thereby ending a series of destructive wars among various First Nations.
It is important to include our vibrant urban Indigenous community as well as the many peoples from diverse backgrounds that now reside here.
This is similar to a gathering of the minds. We are weaving together the past, present, and future of the entire Montréal community that is built on an Indigenous foundation. This is a reminder to anyone that is not Indigenous to this place that the history/past enabled us to be here, that Indigenous peoples and communities are still present and vital to our prosperity, and that we all must be engaged and invested in our collective future to move forward together.
Spring Convocation ceremonies in 2017 included a Territorial Acknowledgement at the start of the proceedings, stated publicly by a lead member of Concordia’s administration. The Indigenous Directions Leadership Group will continue to work with the Convocation planning committees and Concordia’s administration to modify and adapt future convocation ceremonies in a way that includes and supports Indigenous identities, cultures, and languages. Our goal is to develop an inclusive and open environment for all Concordia students, staff, faculty, and community members. Concordia also supports the choice of any Indigenous peoples to wear regalia/cultural dress at Convocation ceremonies in addition to or as an alternative to formal academic attire.
When and where to deliver the Territorial Acknowledgement
Concordia is committed to fostering positive and mutually respectful relationships with local Indigenous peoples and communities, many of whom are students, staff, and faculty members. A Territorial Acknowledgement is a means of recognizing that Indigenous peoples have a long history with the land and waters that we gather upon today and that this is their home and territory. This creates a space for dialogue, community building, and exchange in the true spirit of Tiohtià:ke/Montréal by drawing on its deep-rooted history as a place of diversity, diplomacy, and economic significance. This is also a way that we embrace our role within the territory to ensure the long-term prosperity of our diverse community and the longevity of the lands and waters for future generations.
Typically, the Acknowledgment would be stated at the beginning of any event, meeting or gathering happening at Concordia or sponsored by the university within the territory. The objective of stating it at the beginning of an event is to situate the events and its participants. It also serves as a means of reaffirming the type of relationships that we, as an institution, collective, or individual, are establishing with the place and Caretakers of the lands and waters. Therefore, the intention set in the Territorial Acknowledgement should be stated consciously.
In an effort to foster positive relationships with Indigenous peoples across Canada, a similar Territorial Acknowledgement should be stated elsewhere when visiting the territory of another Nation/People. This gesture respects local Indigenous peoples and communities outside of Concordia and the Montréal region when hosting or participating in events within other territories. Simply put, an acknowledgement of people, territory or space should not be limited to the Concordia campus or Montréal area.
It is always appropriate to deliver a Territorial Acknowledgement. However, there are times when it is not necessary, for example in regularly scheduled team meetings.
An Acknowledgement is necessary during special occasions, events, activities and meetings where opening remarks or a speech will be delivered in front of an audience. It is also a good practice to deliver an Acknowledgement in high level meetings that only occur a few times per year.
No. We understand that sometimes people forget or that they are unsure whether they should have. We understand that it’s a learning process and that it will take time before the delivery of a Territorial Acknowledgement becomes second nature.
We are more likely to be frustrated if the Territorial Agreement is delivered carelessly, read word per word and treated as a mandatory and meaningless recitation before the real business starts.
Yes. Everyone is at liberty to do so. It is not the sole responsibility of the Chair to ensure that an Acknowledgement is made. The respectful way to proceed in such circumstances is to ask the Chair if you can do so.
Go for it!
Absolutely! The Territorial Acknowledgement is a good starting point for deeper conversations about our relationships with the Caretakers of the lands and waters on which we are situated. It is appropriate to open these discussions in a class, or in any event, as a pedagogical opportunity to learn about history, culture, politics, and think critically about our institutional and personal relation with Tiohtià:ke and the diverse peoples who live here today. Please see below for how to cite the Territorial Acknowledgement.
Who to acknowledge
If you are close to a college or university, it is useful to consult their websites to find out and to get a sense of their Territorial Acknowledgments. Alternatively, CAUT has published a guide. Many larger cities also have adopted Territorial Acknowledgements. You can consult the website of the city you reside in or that is closest to you.
If you live close to an Indigenous community or communities, this may also help you determine whose traditional territories you are on. However, it is necessary to verify the information since many Indigenous Peoples have been displaced and the territory they find themselves on today may not be their ancestral lands. Plus, some territories intersect or were and are still used by a multitude of Indigenous Peoples as gathering places.
Yes. The territory you physically occupy takes precedence.
Yes. You can acknowledge the territory you find yourself on as well as the territory that Concordia is built on. An easy way to get around this conundrum is to establish in advance who will deliver the Acknowledgement for Concordia. All other participants are then free to acknowledge the other territories they are joining from.
It is important to note that you can deliver your own Territorial Acknowledgement even if you find yourself on the same territory as Concordia or another participant at the meeting.
No. It is important to mention the specific peoples concerned. All of Canada is Indigenous land.
It is also important to welcome and adopt the terminology that Indigenous Peoples use to designate themselves. Words such as Mohawk and Cree were often attributed by other Indigenous nations or by Europeans settlers, often with negative connotations.
Don’t hesitate to ask for help if you do not know how to pronounce Indigenous words.
To learn the proper pronunciation of Kanienkehà:ka and Tiohtià:ke, listen to the audio clips on this page.
The words Mohawk and Kanienkehà:ka do refer to the same people. However, many First Nations are reclaiming their national and cultural identities by getting rid of the colonial terminology used to designate them, terminology that was not in use prior to European Contact.
The decolonization of terminology is a lengthy process that often has legal implications. Official band and reserve names are still often imposed by the federal government. It is up to the community to decide which names to use in specific contexts. In the context of the Territorial Acknowledgement, Concordia has chosen to honour the term that the people of Tiohtià:ke use to refer to themselves.
How to deliver the Territorial Acknowledgement
A Territorial Acknowledgement can be read aloud/stated by anyone (it does not have to be an Indigenous person). The Acknowledgement is particularly designed to assist people that do not identify as Indigenous to situate themselves within an Indigenous place/territory. It is also designed to remind people of a deeper history that is often forgotten or neglected.
It is disrespectful to ask Indigenous people attending the meeting to deliver a Territorial Acknowledgement, especially if this is their land. The Acknowledgement should always be delivered by persons who are guests on the land.
An Indigenous person who is a guest in Tiohtià:ke can deliver the Acknowledgement but it is important not to single out the only Indigenous person in the meeting and expect them to deliver the Acknowledgement.
A person is usually designated in advance. This person can never be someone who originates from the ancestral lands we are gathering on. All other meeting participants are free to deliver a short personal Acknowledgement of their own.
The best way to deliver a Territorial Acknowledgement is to be familiar with the text and give a heartfelt acknowledgement in your own words.
It is also important to infuse something more personal, for example thanking the concerned Indigenous people for the opportunity to live, work and play on their ancestral lands or speaking of why it is important to you to acknowledge the land you find yourself on.
The text is an official document, reserved for written communications and formal affairs. In other situations, it serves as a guide.
It is either a personal choice or a desire not to offend. Delivering a Territorial Acknowledgement is serious business but it is not intended to be delivered like a funeral address!
Indigenous cultures are meant to be celebrated. It is perfectly fine to deliver an Acknowledgement in a more upbeat manner.
Of course not! There are many acceptable ways to acknowledge the territory and local Indigenous peoples and communities. As our knowledge, experience, and relationships develop and change, so will our ways of acknowledging and collaborating within Tiohtià:ke/Montréal’s Indigenous community. We have also developed a few principles to help guide the process of practicing or developing a Territorial Acknowledgement as a starting point (below).
Indigenous peoples and communities have diverse ways of knowing and cultural protocols that guide how they acknowledge each other and recognize the territory they are visiting or residing within. Being Indigenous to a broad area such as Turtle Island (North America) is not the same as being part of a specific community, Nation, or Territory that has ancestral roots and a relationship to particular place. A welcoming or opening may happen in a variety of ways, here are some examples:
a) Indigenous visitors: When visiting the traditional territory of another Indigenous community, Nation or People — an Indigenous person may draw on their own cultural knowledge and protocols to acknowledge the local Indigenous community to the best of their ability. They may refer to the relationship or history between the two communities, or their personal experiences.
b) By making an offering/gift of: tobacco, medicines, food, seeds, personal belongings, words, and/or songs.
c) Opening: Ohèn:ton Karihwatéhkwen “Matters/Issues that come before (all else)”. This is sometimes referred to as a “Thanksgiving address” or “gathering of the minds.” It is the formal way that Kanien’kehá:ka (People of the Flint, Mohawk) open and begin all types of gatherings. The words and the length of the address vary according to the speaker. It is typically done in Kanien’kéha (Mohawk language) and may or may not include a tobacco burning.
Yes, you can do both. However, the preference of an Elder/community member that has agreed to open an event takes precedence. Ask them how they prefer to be introduced and if they are comfortable with a Territorial Acknowledgement being part of their introduction or the opening. If the event includes Indigenous peoples from many territories, the representative from the local Indigenous territory takes precedence. Respect how they wish to proceed. If at any point you feel you must choose between an opening or a Territorial Acknowledgement, go with an opening as it has more significance to the territory and to the community. We have developed comprehensive guidelines explaining the appropriate protocols to follow when working with Indigenous Elders, Knowledge Keepers and community members.
In recognition of the work that was done by members of the Indigenous Directions Leadership Group in creating this Territorial Acknowledgement, it is recommended to cite it as follows:
“This Territorial Acknowledgement and resources were created by Concordia University’s Indigenous Directions Leadership Group (2017). To read the entire Territorial Acknowledgement and learn more about why it was written this way, please visit www.concordia.ca/indigenous/resources/territorial-acknowledgement.html.”