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Knowledges, methods & ethics

Indigenous Knowledges  - selected books & articles

Anuik, J., & Gillies, C. (2012). Indigenous knowledge in post-secondary educators' practices: Nourishing the learning spiritCanadian Journal of Higher Education, 42(1), 63-79. 

Battiste, M., & Henderson Youngblood, J. (2000). What is Indigenous Knowledge. In M. Battiste, & J. Henderson Youngblood, Protecting Indigenous Knowledge and Heritage. Saskatoon: Purich. pp. 35-56. (print book)

Battiste, M., & Henderson, J. (2009). Naturalizing Indigenous knowledge in Eurocentric educationCanadian Journal of Native Education, 32(1), 5-18. 

Borrows, J. & McNeil, K. (2022). Voicing identity: cultural appropriation and Indigenous issues. Toronto: University of Toronto Press. (print book)

Eckert, L.E., XEMTOLW_Claxton, N., Owens, C., Johnston, A., Ban, N.C. Moola, F., & Darimont, C.T. (2020). Indigenous knowledge and federal environmental assessments in Canada: applying past lessons to the 2019 impact assessment actFACETS.

George, L., Taori, J., MacDonald, L. (Eds). (2020). Indigenous research ethics: Claiming research sovereignty beyond deficit and the colonial legacy. Emerald Publishing. (ebook)

Graveline, F. J. (1998). Circle Works: Transforming Eurocentric Consciousness. Halifax: Fernwood Publishing. (print book)

Grenz, J. (2023). University ethics boards are not ready for Indigenous scholars. World Views. Nature. 616 (221). 

Hart, M.A. (2010). Indigenous worldviews, knowledge, and research: the development of an Indigenous research paradigm. Journal of Indigenous Voices in Social Work 1(1), 1-16.

Kimmerer, R. W. (2013). Braiding sweetgrass. Milkweed Editions. (ebook)

Little Bear, L. (2000). Jagged Worldviews Colliding. In M. Battiste, Reclaiming Indigenous Voice and Vision. Vancouver: UBC Press. pp. 77-85. (ebook)

López López, L. & Coello, G. (eds). (2020). Indigenous futures and learnings taking place. Routledge. (ebook)

McLeod, N. (2007). Cree Narrative Memory: From Treaties to Contemporary Times. Saskatoon: Purich Publishing Limited. (print book)

Neidhardt, J. & Neidhardt, N. (eds). (2019). Groundswell: Indigenous Knowledge and a Call to Action for Climate Change. Strong Nations Publishing. (print book)

Oosten, J. & Miller, B.H. (eds). (2018). Traditions, traps, and trends : transfer of knowledge in Arctic regions. Edmonton: Polynya Press. (ebook)

Reder, D. (2022). Autobiography as Indigenous intellectual tradition: Cree and Métis âcimisowina. Waterloo: Wilfrid Laurier University Press. (print). 

Shahjahan, R. A. (2005). Mapping the Field of anti-colonial discourse to understand issues of Indigenous Knowledges: Decolonizing praxisMcGill Journal of Education, 40(2), 213-240. 

Tanaka, M.T.D. (2016). Learning and teaching together: weaving indigenous ways of knowing into education. Vancouver: UBC Press. (print book)

Wemigwans, J. (2018). A digital bundle: protecting and promoting Indigenous knowledge online. Regina: University of Regina Press. (ebook)

Wilson, A. C. (2004). Reclaiming our Humanity: Decolonization and the Recovery of Indigenous Knowlegde. In D. A. Mihesuah, & A. C. Wilson, Indigenizing the Academy: Transforming Scholarship and Empowering Communities (pp. 69-85). Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press. (print book)

Indigenous research methods  - selected books & articles

Absolon, K.E. (2022). Kaandossiwin: how we come to know - Indigenous re-search methodologies. Fernwood Publishing. (print book)

Andersen, C, & O'Brien, J. M. (eds). (2017). Sources and methods in indigenous studiesNew York: Routledge. (ebook)

Archibald, J., Lee-Morgan, J., De Santolo, J., & Smith, L.T. (Eds). (2019). Decolonizing research: Indigenous storywork as methodology. London: Zed Books. (print)

Asselin, H., & Basile, S.I. (2018). Concrete ways to decolonize research. ACME: An International Journal of Critical Geographies 17(3): 643-650. 

Brayboy, J.,  & McKinley, B. (2005). Toward a tribal critical race theory in educationUrban review: issues and ideas in public education, 37(5): 425-446. 

Burnette, C. E., Sanders, S., Butcher, H. K. & Rand, J. T. (2014). A Toolkit for Ethical and Culturally Sensitive Research: An Application with Indigenous Communities.  Ethics and Social Welfare 8(4): 364-382. 

Castellano, M.B. (2004). Ethics of Aboriginal ResearchJournal of Aboriginal Health 1(1): 98-114. 

Chilisa, B. (2012). Indigenous Research Methodologies. California: Sage Publications. (print book)

Denzin, N. K., Lincoln, Y. S., & Smith, L. T. (2008). Handbook of Critical and Indigenous Methodologies. California: Sage Publications. (ebook)

Gentelet, K., Basile, S., & Asselin, H. (2018). "We have to start sounding the trumpet for things that are working": An interview with Dr. Marlene Brant-Castellano on concrete ways to decolonize researchACME: An International Journal of Critical Geographies 17(3): 832-39. 

Herman, RDK (ed.) (2018). Giving back: Research and Reciprocity in Indigenous settings. Baltimore, MD: Project Muse. (ebook)

Hokowhitu, B., Moreton-Robinson, A. Tuhiwai Smith, L., Andersen, C., & Larkin, S. (eds). (2021). Routledge Handbook of Critical Indigenous Studies. Routledge. (ebook)

Hokowhitu, B. (ed). (2010). Indigenous identity and resistance: researching the diversity of knowledge. Dunedin, NZ: Otago University Press. (print book)

Jull, J.E., Giles, A., Boyer, y., Stacey, D., & Lodge, M. (2018). Development of a Collaborative Research Framework: the example of a study conducted by and with a First Nations, Inuit and Metis Women's community and their research partners. ACME: An International Journal for Critical Geographies 17(3): 671-686. 

Kovach, M. (2021). Indigenous Methodologies: characteristics, conversations and contexts. Second edition. Toronto: University of Toronto Press. (print book)

Kovach, M. (2018). Doing Indigenous methodologies: a letter to a research class. In N.K. Denzin & Y.S. Lincoln (eds). The Sage Handbook of qualitative research (pp. 214-234) (5th edition). Los Angeles: Sage. (print book)

Lambert, L. (2014). Research for indigenous survival: indigenous research methodologies in the behavioral sciences. Montana: Salish Kootenai College Press. (print book)

Mbah, M.F., Filho, W. L., & Ajaps, S. (Eds). (2022). Indigenous methodologies, research, and practices for sustainable development. Springer. (ebook)

McGregor, D., Restoule J., & Johnston, R. (eds) (2018). Indigenous research: theories, practices and relationships. Toronto: Canadian Scholars. (ebook)

McMahon, R., LaHache, T., & Whiteduck, T. (2015). Digital data management as indigenous resurgence in kahnawà:Ke. International Indigenous Policy Journal, 6 (3).

Mertens, D. M., Cram, F., & Chilisa, B. (eds). (2013). Indigenous pathways into social research: voices of a new generation. Walnut Creek, CA: Left Coast Press. (print book)

Prete, T.D. (2019). Beadworking as an Indigenous research paradigm. Art/Research International: A Transdisciplinary Journal 4(1), 28-57.

Quinless, J.M. (2022). Decolonizing data: unsettling conversations about social research methods. Toronto: University of Toronto Press. (print book)

Restoule, J., McGregor, D., & Johnston, R. (Eds). (2019). Indigenous research: theories, practices, and relationships. Vancouver: Canadian Scholars. (print book & ebook)

Ritenburg, H., Young Leon, A. E., Linds, W. Nadeau, D. M. Goulet, L. M., Kovach, M. & Marshall, M. (2014). Embodying decolonization: Methodologies and indigenization. AlterNative: An International Journal of Indigenous Peoples, 10(1), 67-80. 

Smith, L.T., Lee, E., & Evans, J. (eds). (2022). Indigenous women's voices: 20 years on from Linda Tuhiwai Smith's decolonzing methodologies. Zed Books. (print book)

Smith, L. T. (2021). Decolonizing methodologies : research and indigenous peoples. 3rd edition. New York: Zed Books. (ebook)

Strega, S., & Brown, L. (eds). (2015). Research as resistance: revisiting critical, indigenous, and anti-oppressive approaches. Toronto: Canadian Scholar's Press. (print book)

Sylvestre, P., Castleden, H., Martin, D., & McNally, M. (2018). "Thank You Very Much... You Can Leave Our Community Now.”: Geographies of Responsibility, Relational Ethics, Acts of Refusal, and the Conflicting Requirements of Academic Localities in Indigenous Research. ACME: An International Journal for Critical Geographies 17(3): 750-79. 

Tilly, S. A. (2016). Doing respectful research: power, privilege and passion. Black Point, NS: Fernwood Publishing. (print book)

Vasquez-Fernandez, A.M., Hajjar, R., Sangama, M.I.S., Lizardo, R.S., Pinedo, M.P., Innes, J.L., & Kozak, R.A. (2018). Co-creating and Decolonizing a Methodology Using Indigenist Approaches: Alliance with the Asheninka and Yine-Yami Peoples of the Peruvian Amazon. ACME: An International Journal for Critical Geographies 17(3): 720-49. 

Walter, M. (Ed). (2021). Indigenous data sovereignty and policy. New York: Routledge. (ebook)

Walter, M., & Andersen, C. (2013). Indigenous statistics: a quantitative research methodology. Walnut Creek, CA: Left Coast Press. (print book)

Wilson, S. (2008). Research is ceremony: indigenous research methods. Black Point, NS: Fernwood Publishing. (print book)

Windchief, S. & San Pedro, T. (2019). Applying Indigenous research methods: storying with peoples and communities. Routledge. (print book)

Xiiem, J. Archibald Q'um Qum, Lee-Morgan, J. & De Santolo, J. (eds). (2019). Decolonizing research: Indigenous storywork as methodology. London: ZED books. (print book)

Younging, G. (2018). Elements of Indigenous style: a guide for writing by and about Indigenous peoples. Edmonton: Brush Education. (ebook)

Research Ethics


Acquire Ethics Approval (Concordia University - Resources for Researchers)

Ethics in Research (School of Community and Public Affairs & First Peoples Studies)


OCAP: First Nations Principles of OCAP - First Nations Information Governance Centre (FNIGC)

The First Nations principles of OCAP® are a set of standards that establish how First Nations data should be collected, protected, used, or shared. They are the de facto standard for how to conduct research with First Nations.

Standing for ownership, control, access and possession, OCAP® asserts that First Nations have control over data collection processes in their communities, and that they own and control how this information can be used.

Tri-Council Policy Statement: Ethical Conduct for Research Involving Humans - TCPS 2: Chapter 9 - Research Involving the First Nations, Inuit and Métis Peoples of Canada - Government of Canada

This chapter on research involving Aboriginal peoples in Canada, including Indian (First Nations), Inuit and Métis peoples, marks a step toward establishing an ethical space for dialogue on common interests and points of difference between researchers and Aboriginal communities engaged in research.

First Nations Caring Society report for the TRC: Indigenous Youth Voices: A Way Forward in Conducting Research With and By Indigenous Youth


First Nations in Quebec and Labrador's Research Protocol (2014) - La Commission de la santé et des services sociaux des Premières Nations du Québec et du Labrador (CSSSPNQL) (PDF)

The First Nations in Quebec and Labrador’s Research Protocol is first and foremost a collective tool for community chiefs and managers who are invited to take part in research projects. This document will be used as a guide by not only First Nations, communities and regional organizations, but also indirectly by the scientific community, in order to establish rules for research activities performed with First Nations or on their territory

Insitut nordique du Quebec - Together for the North: Research Guidelines - First Peoples Working Group Institue Nordique de Quebec



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