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Knowledges, methods & ethics

Indigenous Knowledges  - selected books & articles

Anuik, J., & Gillies, C. (2012). Indigenous knowledge in post-secondary educators' practices: Nourishing the learning spirit. Canadian Journal of Higher Education, 42(1), 63-79.

Battiste, M., & Henderson, J. (2009). Naturalizing Indigenous knowledge in Eurocentric education. Canadian Journal of Native Education, 32(1), 5-18.

Eckert, L.E., XEMTOLW_Claxton, N., Owens, C., Johnston, A., Ban, N.C. Moola, F., & Darimont, C.T. (2020). Indigenous knowledge and federal environmental assessments in Canada: applying past lessons to the 2019 impact assessment act. FACETS

Neidhardt, J. & Neidhardt, N. (eds). (2019). Groundswell: Indigenous Knowledge and a Call to Action for Climate Change. Strong Nations Publishing. (print)

Oosten, J. & Miller, B.H. (eds). (2018). Traditions, traps, and trends : transfer of knowledge in Arctic regions. Edmonton: Polynya Press. (ebook) & (print)

Shahjahan, R. A. (2005). Mapping the Field of anti-colonial discourse to understand issues of Indigenous Knowledges: Decolonizing praxis. McGill Journal of Education, 40(2), 213-240.

Tanaka, M.T.D. (2016). Learning and teaching together: weaving indigenous ways of knowing into education. Vancouver: UBC Press. (print)

Wemigwans, J. (2018). A digital bundle: protecting and promoting Indigenous knowledge online. Regina: University of Regina Press.*eng (print)

Indigenous research methods  - selected books & articles

Andersen, C, & O'Brien, J. M. (eds). (2017). Sources and methods in indigenous studies. New York: Routledge. (print)

Asselin, H., & Basile, S.I. (2018). Concrete ways to decolonize research. ACME: An International Journal of Critical Geographies 17(3): 643-650.

Brayboy, J.,  & McKinley, B. (2005). Toward a tribal critical race theory in education. Urban review: issues and ideas in public education, 37(5), 425-446:

Burnette, C. E., Sanders, S., Butcher, H. K. & Rand, J. T. (2014). A Toolkit for Ethical and Culturally Sensitive Research: An Application with Indigenous Communities.  Ethics and Social Welfare 8(4): 364-382.

Castellano, M.B. (2004). Ethics of Aboriginal Research. Journal of Aboriginal Health 1(1): 98-114.

Chilisa, B. (2012). Indigenous Research Methodologies. California: Sage Publications. (print) 

Denzin, N. K., Lincoln, Y. S., & Smith, L. T. (2008). Handbook of Critical and Indigenous Methodologies. California: Sage Publications. (ebook)

Gentelet, K., Basile, S., & Asselin, H. (2018). "We have to start sounding the trumpet for things that are working": An interview with Dr. Marlene Brant-Castellano on concrete ways to decolonize research. ACME: An International Journal of Critical Geographies 17(3): 832-39.

Herman, RDK (ed.) (2018). Giving back: Research and Reciprocity in Indigenous settings. Baltimore, MD: Project Muse.*eng (ebook) &*eng (print)

Hokowhitu, B. (ed). (2010). Indigenous identity and resistance: researching the diversity of knowledge. Dunedin, NZ: Otago University Press. (print)

Jull, J.E., Giles, A., Boyer, y., Stacey, D., & Lodge, M. (2018). Development of a Collaborative Research Framework: the example of a study conducted by and with a First Nations, Inuit and Metis Women's community and their research partners. ACME: An International Journal for Critical Geographies 17(3): 671-686.  

Kovach, M. (2009). Indigenous Methodologies: characteristics, conversations and contexts. Toronto: University of Toronto Press. (print)

Kovach, M. (2018). Doing Indigenous methodologies: a letter to a research class. In N.K. Denzin & Y.S. Lincoln (eds). The Sage Handbook of qualitative research (pp. 214-234) (5th edition). Los Angeles: Sage:

Lambert, L. (2014). Research for indigenous survival: indigenous research methodologies in the behavioral sciences. Montana: Salish Kootenai College Press. (print)

McGregor, D., Restoule J., & Johnston, R. (eds) (2018). Indigenous research: theories, practices and relationships. Toronto: Canadian Scholars. (print)

McMahon, R., LaHache, T., & Whiteduck, T. (2015). Digital data management as indigenous resurgence in kahnawà:Ke. International Indigenous Policy Journal, 6 (3) Retrieved from

Mertens, D. M., Cram, F., & Chilisa, B. (eds). (2013). Indigenous pathways into social research: voices of a new generation. Walnut Creek, CA: Left Coast Press. (print)

Ritenburg, H., Young Leon, A. E., Linds, W. Nadeau, D. M. Goulet, L. M., Kovach, M. & Marshall, M. (2014). Embodying decolonization: Methodologies and indigenization. AlterNative: An International Journal of Indigenous Peoples, 10(1), 67-80.

Smith, L. T. (2012). Decolonizing methodologies : research and indigenous peoples. New York: Zed Books. (print)

Strega, S., & Brown, L. (eds). (2015). Research as resistance: revisiting critical, indigenous, and anti-oppressive approaches. Toronto: Canadian Scholar's Press. (print)

Sylvestre, P., Castleden, H., Martin, D., & McNally, M. (2018). "Thank You Very Much... You Can Leave Our Community Now.”: Geographies of Responsibility, Relational Ethics, Acts of Refusal, and the Conflicting Requirements of Academic Localities in Indigenous Research. ACME: An International Journal for Critical Geographies 17(3): 750-79.

Tilly, S. A. (2016). Doing respectful research: power, privilege and passion. Black Point, NS: Fernwood Publishing. (print)

Vasquez-Fernandez, A.M., Hajjar, R., Sangama, M.I.S., Lizardo, R.S., Pinedo, M.P., Innes, J.L., & Kozak, R.A. (2018). Co-creating and Decolonizing a Methodology Using Indigenist Approaches: Alliance with the Asheninka and Yine-Yami Peoples of the Peruvian Amazon. ACME: An International Journal for Critical Geographies 17(3): 720-49.

Walter, M., & Andersen, C. (2013). Indigenous statistics: a quantitative research methodology. Walnut Creek, CA: Left Coast Press. (print)

Wilson, S. (2008). Research is ceremony: indigenous research methods. Black Point, NS: Fernwood Publishing. (print)

Xiiem, J. Archibald Q'um Qum, Lee-Morgan, J. & De Santolo, J. (eds). (2019). Decolonizing research: Indigenous storywork as methodology. London: ZED books.*eng (print)

Younging, G. (2018). Elements of Indigenous style: a guide for writing by and about Indigenous peoples. Edmonton: Brush Education. (print) & (ebook)

Research Ethics


Acquire Ethics Approval (Concordia University - Resources for Researchers)

Ethics in Research (School of Community and Public Affairs & First Peoples Studies)


OCAP: First Nations Principles of OCAP - First Nations Information Governance Centre (FNIGC)

The First Nations principles of OCAP® are a set of standards that establish how First Nations data should be collected, protected, used, or shared. They are the de facto standard for how to conduct research with First Nations.

Standing for ownership, control, access and possession, OCAP® asserts that First Nations have control over data collection processes in their communities, and that they own and control how this information can be used.

Tri-Council Policy Statement: Ethical Conduct for Research Involving Humans - TCPS 2: Chapter 9 - Research Involving the First Nations, Inuit and Métis Peoples of Canada - Government of Canada

This chapter on research involving Aboriginal peoples in Canada, including Indian (First Nations), Inuit and Métis peoples, marks a step toward establishing an ethical space for dialogue on common interests and points of difference between researchers and Aboriginal communities engaged in research.


First Nations in Quebec and Larador's Research Protocol (2014) - La Commission de la santé et des services sociaux des Premières Nations du Québec et du Labrador (CSSSPNQL) 

The First Nations in Quebec and Labrador’s Research Protocol is first and foremost a collective tool for community chiefs and managers who are invited to take part in research projects. This document will be used as a guide by not only First Nations, communities and regional organizations, but also indirectly by the scientific community, in order to establish rules for research activities performed with First Nations or on their territory

Insitut nordique du Quebec - Together for the North: Research Guidelines - First Peoples Working Group Institue Nordique de Quebec



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