APA business citation guide
This page describes how to cite common business sources such as annual reports, articles, social media and statistics using the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, (APA) 6th ed.
For examples on how to cite sources from each business database, consult Concordia's guide on Citing Business Databases in APA Format.
Annual Reports from Company Website
(Unilever, 2010, p. 29)
Unilever. (2010). Annual report and accounts 2010. Retrieved from http://www.unilever.ca/Images/Unilever_AR10_tcm25-260444.pdf
- The URL should provide a direct link to the company's annual report.
- Remember that there is no period after the URL.
- Include page numbers when citing information directly from the text.
(Air Canada, 2011, p. 2)
(Microsoft Corp., 2011, p. 10)
Air Canada. (2011, March 31). Air Canada: Annual report 2010. Retrieved from SEDAR database.
Microsoft Corp. (2011, July 28). Form 10-K. Retrieved from EDGAR database.
Note: Abbreviate long company names in the second and following In-text citations.
Business Source Compete--EBSCO
(Matlack, 2012, p. 36)
Matlack, C. (2012, January 16). Who do you trust more: Facebook or a bank? Bloomberg Businessweek, 4262, 36-37. Retrieved from Business Source Complete database.
Canadian Periodicals Index Quarterly (CPIQ)
Jerome, S. (2011, October 13). BlackBerry: Still no. 1. National Journal. Retrieved from Canadian Periodicals Index Quarterly.
Jolicoeur, M. (2012, January 24). Air Canada rompt les négociations avec ses pilotes. Les affaires.com. Retrieved from Eureka.cc database.
(Lewis, 2012, p. 28)
The feeling is mutual; John Lewis as a model. (2012, January 21). The Economist, 402, 28. Retrieved from Factiva database.
ProQuest Business Databases
(Vukovic, 2011, p. 99)
(Robins, 2010, p. 25)
Vukovic, V. (2011). Political economy of the US financial crisis 2007-2009. Financial Theory and Practice, 35, 91-128. Retrieved from ABI/ INFORM Global database.
Robins, F. (2010). China: A new kind of 'mixed' economy? Asian Business & Management, 9(1), 23-46. Retrieved from ProQuest Asian Business & Reference.
Note: ProQuest business databases encompass many different databases. Be sure to look through the indexing information at the end of the article to find out the database your article is from.
First citation: (Chartered Professional Accountants of Canada [CPA Canada], 2015, para. 14.)
Subsequent Citations: (CPA Canada, 2015, para. 14).
Note: Use the paragraph number instead of the page number when quoting directly from the text.
For example: (CPA Canada, 2015, para. 14).
Chartered Professional Accountants of Canada. (2015, September). Public sector accounting standards: Concepts and principles. Section: PS 1000 - PS 1300. In Chartered Professional Accountants of Canada Handbook. Retrieved from the CPA Canada Standards and Guidance Collection.
Connolly, J. (2012, March 13). Twitter buys posterous! [Blog post]. Retrieved from http://jimsmarketingblog.com/2012/03/13/twitter-buys-posterous/
(Air Canada, 2012)
Air Canada. (2012, March 12). Ever wonder why cabin ventilation diminishes prior to engine start? [Facebook wall post]. Retrieved from http://www.facebook.com/aircanada
VIA_RAIL. (2012, March 14). Welcome aboard Jane! [Twitter post]. Retrieved from https://twitter.com/#!/VIA_Rail
Volkswagen. (2011, February 2). The force: Volkswagen commercial [Video file]. Retrieved March 10, 2012, from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=R55e-uHQna0
- Always include the author name as written.
- Do not include the time of the post, only include the year and day.
- The title should be the whole post, however, when citing from Facebook, you may use a truncated version of the post.
- Do not forget to provide a description in brackets of the contents form. Ex. [Facebook update].
- The URL should lead directly to the post or video.
E-STAT (CANSIM Tables)
(Statistics Canada, 2011)
Statistics Canada. (2011, July 5). CANSIM table 080-0009, survey of large retailers, monthly (dollars) [Table]. Retrieved from E-STAT database.
Ipsos News Center
Braid, K. (2011, October 5). Public views of health care in BC. Retrieved from Ipsos News Center database.
PMB Print Measurement Bureau
First citation: (Print Measurement Bureau [PMB], 2011)
Subsequent Citations: (PMB, 2011)
Print Measurement Bureau. (2011). Personally drunk in past 6 months. PMB 2011 Category Reports: Alcohol Wine. Retrieved from PMB database.
- Do not forget to include the category where your information was retrieved.
- Include the date as the categories may change yearly.
- If you are retrieving information from the "graph it" feature, include the form of the data after the title. For example, Personally drunk in past 6 months [Graph].