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Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada (TRC)

"For over a century, the central goals of Canada’s Aboriginal policy were to eliminate Aboriginal governments; ignore Aboriginal rights; terminate the Treaties; and, through a process of assimilation, cause Aboriginal peoples to cease to exist as distinct legal, social, cultural, religious, and racial entities in Canada. The establishment and operation of residential schools were a central element of this policy, which can best be described as “cultural genocide.”" (Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada, 2015, Honouring the Truth, Reconciling for the Future, p. 1) 


Canada's Residential Schools: Reports of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada

The TRC Final Report contains several volumes, available online and in print at Concordia Library.

SUMMARY OF FINAL REPORT Honouring the Truth, Reconciling for the Future: Summary of the Final Report of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada (2015) PDF Print

FINAL REPORT Canada's Residential Schools: Final Report of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada (2015) in print (7 Volumes) & in PDF (English) / PDF (French)

  • Vol 1, pt. 1: Canada's Residential Schools: The History, Part 1 Origins to 1939 PDF & Print 
    • Vol 1, pt 1 Index        
  • Vol 1, pt. 2: Canada's Residential Schools: The History, Part 2 1939 to 2000 PDF & Print 
  • Vol 2: Canada's Residential Schools: The Inuit and Northern Experience PDF & Print  
  • Vol 3: Canada's Residential Schools: The Metis Experience PDF Print
  • Vol 4: Canada's Residential Schools: Missing Children and Unmarked Burials PDF Print 
  • Vol 5: Canada's Residential Schools: The Legacy PDF Print 
  • Vol 6: Canada's Residential Schools: Reconciliation PDF Print  

Calls to Action and other post-TRC reports

Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada: Calls to Action  (2015) 

In order to redress the legacy of residential schools and advance the process of Canadian reconciliation, the Truth and Reconciliation Commission made 94 calls to action. 

What We Have Learned: Principles of Truth and Reconciliation (2015) - Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada 

The Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada has developed a definition of reconciliation and a guiding set of principles for truth and reconciliation.

The Survivors Speak: A report of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada (2015)

The Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada was mandated “to receive statements and documents from former students, their families, community and all other interested participants” and to recognize “the unique experiences” of all former students. Over 6,750 people have given recorded statements to the Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada.

A knock at the door: the essential history of residential schools from the Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada - Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada, foreword by Phil Fontaine (2016) 

Universities Canada principles on Indigenous Education (2015)

In response to the TRC’s calls to action Canada’s universities in collaboration with Indigenous communities authored 13 principles on Indigenous education recognizing the importance and need to open up its institutional and academic spaces in multiple ways recognizing ”the intellectual and [scientific Indigenous knowledge systems] is essential to building  mutual relationships grounded in trust and shared understanding.

Resources on Canada's universities and reconciliation (2016) - Universities Canada

The package of resources below has been developed to help member institutions respond to the Truth and Reconciliation Commission’s 94 calls to action and bring to life the Principles on Indigenous Education. It includes examples of promising practices for reconciliation at Canadian universities, a guidance document with key considerations for putting in place such practices and links to existing resources.

National Centre for Truth and Reconciliation at the University of Manitoba 

The National Centre for Truth and Reconciliation (NCTR) was created to preserve the memory of Canada’s Residential School system and legacy. The NCTR will be the permanent home for all statements, documents, and other materials gathered by the Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada (TRC).

Murder by decree: the crime of genocide in Canada: A counter report to the "Truth and Reconciliation Commission" (2016) - The International Tribunal for the Disappeared of Canada

Pre-2015 Reports

Canada. Prime Minister. Aboriginal Affairs and Northern Development Canada. Statement of Apology - to former students of Indian Residential Schools. (2013)

Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada: interim report (2012)

Commission de vérité et réconciliation du Canada: rapport intérimaire (2012)

Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada. They came for the children: Canada, Aboriginal peoples, and residential schools (2012)

Commission de vérité et réconciliation du Canada. Ils sont venus pour les enfants : le Canada, les peuples autochtones et les pensionnats (2012)

Conducting research on residential schools: a guide to the records of the Indian and Inuit Affairs Program and related resources at Library and Archives Canada (2012)

Map - Indian Residential Schools of Canada (2012)

The role of the Royal Canadian Mounted Police during the Indian Residential School System (2011)

For the child taken, for the parent left behind (2010)

Residential School literature review, 1987-1997 (1997)

"Suffer the little children": the Aboriginal residential school system 1830-1992 / Submitted to the Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples by J.S. Milloy (1996)

The circle game: shadows and substance in the Indian residential school experience in Canada / a report to the Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples; Roland D. Chrisjohn & Sherri L. Young (1994)

L'expérience métisse
Final report of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada. Volume one, Summary : honouring the truth, reconciling for the future
Final report of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada. Volume one, Summary : honouring the truth, reconciling for the future
Final report of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada. Volume one, Summary : honouring the truth, reconciling for the future
Final report of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada. Volume one, Summary : honouring the truth, reconciling for the future
The role of the Royal Canadian Mounted Police during the Indian Residential School system
The role of the Royal Canadian Mounted Police during the Indian Residential School system
The role of the Royal Canadian Mounted Police during the Indian Residential School system
The role of the Royal Canadian Mounted Police during the Indian Residential School system

Residential schools

The Residential School System: Indigenous Foundations - First Nations & Indigenous Studies UBC

Bryce, P.H. (1922). The Story of National Crime: Being an Appeal for Justice to the Indians of Canada, The Wards of the Nation: Our Allies in the Revolutionary War: Our Borthers-in-Arms in the Great War. Ottawa: James Hope & Sons, Ltd.

Canadian Geographic Indigenous Peoples Atlas of Canada (2018). National Centre for Truth and Reconciliation, Assembly of First Nations, Inuit Tapiriit Kanatami, the Metis Nation and Indspire. Volume 1. (print, reference, in library use only)

Capitaine, B. & K. Vanthuyne (eds) (2017). Power through testimony: reframing residential schools in the age of reconciliation. vancouver: UBC Press. (print)

Dumont, M. (author) Gray, R., Gros-Louis Monier, M. (Eds) (2010). Collection of life stories of the survivors of the Quebec Indian Residential Schools. Wendake: First Nations of Quebec and Labrador Health and Social Services Commission. (print)

Facing History and Ourselves. (2019). Stolen Lives: The Indigenous Peoples of Canada and the Indian Residential Schools. (ebook)

Merasty, J. A. (2015). The education of Augie Merasty: a residential school memoir. Regina: University of Regina Press.  (print)

Miller, J. R. (2017). Residential schools and reconciliation: Canada confronts its history. Toronto: University of Toronto Press. (print)

Milloy, J. S. (2017). A national crime: the Canadian government and the residential school system, 1879-1986. Winnipeg: University of Manitoba Press. (print) &  ebook

Niezen, R. (2013). Truth and indignation: Canada's Truth and Reconciliation Commission on Indian Residential Schools. Toronto: University of Toronto Press. (print) Second Edition (2017)

Regan, P. (2010). Unsettling the settler within: Indian residential schools, truth telling, and reconciliation in Canada. Vancouver: UBC Press. (ebook) & print

Reynaud, A. (2017). Emotions, remembering and feeling better: dealing with the Indian residential schoolds settlement agreement in Canada. Bielefeld: Verlag. (print) 

Sellars, B. (2013). They called me number one: secrets and survival at Indian residential school. Vancouver: Talon Books. (print)

Starblanket, T. (2018). Suffer the little children: genocide, Indigenous children, and the Canadian state. Atlanta: Clarity Press. 

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