Skip to main content
Workshops & seminars, Conferences & lectures

Inequality and Participation in Democracy (ONLINE)

January 7, 2021 (8:00am - 11:00am & 12:30pm - 3:30pm)
with Dr. Thomas Bryer,
Professor, Public Administration, Doctoral Program in Public Affairs, University of Central Florida

SPSA - ONLINE 2021 | All times are in CST
Date & time
Thursday, January 7, 2021
8 a.m. – 3:30 p.m.

Dr. Thomas Bryer,
Professor, Public Administration, Doctoral Program in Public Affairs, University of Central Florida


Participants must register to attend: Register here


SPSA Conference 2021
*Registered participants will also have access to all workshop recordings until March 15th 2021


Democracy demands that all people have the same credibility in community- and political/policy decision-influencing processes, regardless of age, race, ethnicity, sex, gender identity, sexual orientation, immigration status, income level, past family income, education level, life experience, criminal record, or any additional “other” category that might separate some from the whole. As demonstrated in the 2020 presidential election in the United States, the vote can be the great political equalizer, with the rule of one-person, one vote (except, in the case of Florida, an individual is a convicted felon who has not fulfilled the terms of punishment—both in prison time and in financial levies).

To view our political systems so simply blocks our collective view of the power imbalances that enable four distinct classes: the manipulators, the manipulated, the mobilizers, and the mobilized. Both the manipulated and mobilized are, at first, possessing unequal power compared to the manipulators and mobilizers. The difference is that the mobilized become influential through empowerment, whereas the manipulated remain under the control of the powerful.

This workshop will explore dimensions of and solutions to political and social inequalities, inequities, and resultant consequences for electoral and participatory democracy. The focus will be not on excluded citizens but “included-out citizens” who lack the status and/or the personal efficacy to meaningfully engage in community and political life.

Workshop Outline & Suggested Readings

Thursday, January 7

Session 1 8:00am - 11:00am

Defining the Other in Democracy—The Included-Out Citizen


  • Ci, Jiwie. 2013. “Agency and Other Stakes of Poverty.” The Journal of Political Philosophy, 21(2), 125-150.
  • Erni, John Nguyet. 2016. “Citizenship Management: On the Politics of Being Included-Out.” International Journal of Cultural Studies, 19(3), 323-340.
  • Bryer, Thomas A. and Safiya Prysmakova-Rivera. 2018. Poor Participation: Fighting the Wars on Poverty and Impoverished Citizenship. Lanham: Lexington Books. (Chapters 1-4)
Session 2
12:30pm - 3:30pm

Strategies to Overcome Barriers to Equality and Equity in Democracy—From the Included-Out to the Included-In


Back to top Back to top

© Concordia University