Panel XA: Roads and Urban Sprawl
To reduce the negative effects of roads and traffic on wildlife populations, fencing usually is the most important component of roadkill reduction, because wildlife passages without fencing, in general, do not reduce roadkill. Understanding where and why wildlife-vehicle collisions occur can inform planners about where mitigation measures would be placed most effectively. However, it is not clear how the choice of scales influences the results and how the locations of the warm- and coldspots should be included in the decision-making. We used roadkill data of reptiles and medium-sized mammals from three roads and applied multiple scales of analysis to answer two questions: (1) Are there thresholds in the effect of the extent of fencing (total fence length) on the expected reduction in road mortality? (2) What are the effects of varying scales and varying confidence levels on the road section prioritization results for fencing? We used the software Siriema to identify hotspots, warmspots, and coldspots of road mortality at multiple scales. The choice of scales affected the amount of hot-, warm-, and coldspots identified. When roadkill data are analyzed at a smaller scale (e.g. 100 m), there are more hotspots identified, but combined they cover a shorter overall length of the road than hotspots at larger scales. Our study shows how identifying hotspots, warmspots, and coldspots at multiple scales allows for a more comprehensive approach for locating and prioritizing road sections for wildlife fencing. We discuss the existence of thresholds in the amount of total fencing needed, the importance of considering the fence-end effect when defining the length of the fences to be installed, and the FLOMS trade-off: “Few-Long-Or-Many-Short fences”. Based on these results, we propose an Adaptive Fence Implementation Plan with steps to prioritize road sections for wildlife fencing.
Rapid urban development in many countries worldwide has become a controversial issue due to its many negative effects. In Canadian metropolitan areas, built-up areas have increased by 157% between 1971 and 2011. Urban sprawl refers to dispersed, low-density development and research is urgently needed about patterns of urban sprawl in the past and in the present. This project assesses temporal changes in urban sprawl across all census metropolitan areas (CMAs) in Canada from 1991 to 2011 using the Urban Sprawl Metrics (USM) Toolset. It measures the metric of Weighted Urban Proliferation (WUP) and its three components: percentage of built-up area in the landscape (PBA), the dispersion of built-up area (DIS), and land uptake per person (LUP). The value of WUP answers the question of how strongly the landscape within the boundaries of the CMA is sprawled per km2. We also present Weighted Sprawl per Capita (WSPC), which answers the question of how much on average each inhabitant or workplace contributes to urban sprawl in a CMA. For example, in 2011, Saint John scored highest for WSPC (70.5 kUPU/(inhab. or job)), followed by Thunder Bay (61.5 kUPU/(inhab. or job)) and Greater Sudbury (59.7 kUPU/(inhab. or job)). The lowest values of WSPC were observed in Toronoto (13 kUPU/(inhab. or job)), Montreal (14.1 kUPU/(inhab. or job)), Vancouver (16 kUPU/(inhab. or job)), and Calgary (20.3 kUPU/(inhab. or job)). In addition, we compare CMAs in which the increase in urban sprawl has accelerated to those in which the increase has slowed down. Potential causes of these differences are discussed. The results are valuable for future urban and regional land use planning, such as the protection of agricultural soils, and for environmental monitoring.
Urban sprawl poses serious threats to sustainability due to its damaging consequences such as soil sealing, loss of fertile farmland, greater automobile dependence, reduction and fragmentation of wildlife habitats, and higher infrastructure costs. Montreal has witnessed an explosive rise in urban sprawl in the last 50 years, from 0.11 to 12.60 UPU/m2 in the 60 years between 1951 to 2011, with most of the growth occurring in the last 25 years. This presentation will examine potential socio-economic drivers of urban sprawl in the Census Metropolitan Area of Montreal in 2011. The data for the socio-economic variables were gathered from the CHASS (Computing in the Humanities and Social Sciences) database for the year 2011, and the response variables were obtained from the 2016 publication of Nazarnia et al., “Accelerated urban sprawl in Montreal, Quebec City, and Zurich: Investigating the differences using time series 1951-2011”. The response variables include three measures of urban sprawl and their three components. We hypothesize strong correlations between sprawl and choice of commuting transport, generational status, age, income, number of rooms per dwelling, home ownership, and population density, and moderate correlations for number of children per family and commute duration. Correlation and multiple linear regression are used to test these hypotheses. The results of this study will potentially aid in curbing the increase of urban sprawl and its negative effects.
The accelerated growth of urban sprawl in Montreal over the past 40 years has had serious negative consequences and has prompted questions about the future. Current land use planning and decision-making processes present opportunities to reconsider the quality of life, automobile dependence, and state of the natural environment that future generations will experience. This interdisciplinary project about urban sprawl in Montreal focuses on intergenerational justice, with the goal of creating scenarios of sustainable urban development that will benefit current and future generations. As the project moves forward, Montrealers across generations will be invited to contribute to producing long-term scenarios, considering the implications of future urban sprawl in terms of intergenerational justice, social development, quality of life, and the environment. The project addresses the issue of intergenerational justice by weighing the lifestyle preferences of current generations against the needs and remaining options of future generations. The project also examines current perceptions of urban sprawl, seeking to foster a community-wide conversation about the effects of urban sprawl in Montreal and build a community of residents interested in participating in the creation of future scenarios for the development of the city.
This event is brought to you by the Loyola College for Diversity and Sustainability and the Loyola Sustainability Research Centre with the support of the Office of the Vice-President, Research and Graduate Studies; the Faculty of Arts and Science; the Canada Excellence Research Chair in Smart, Sustainable and Resilient Communities and Cities; the John Molson School of Business; and the Departments of Biology; Communication Studies; Economics; Geography, Planning and Environment; Management; and Political Science at Concordia University.