How Can You Mend a Broken Heart? Music Therapy in the Continuum of Care in Cardiac Disease
This presentation will include a description of biopsychosocial factors involved in heart disease, the effects of music on the heart and current research in music therapy in the prevention and treatment of heart disease.
Cheryl Dileo, Ph.D., MT-BC The Laura H. Carnell Professor of Music Therapy
Coordinator, PhD Program in Music Therapy
Director, Arts and Quality of Life Research Center
Mindfulness- or the ability to pay attention to momentary experiences while maintaining a stance of equanimity - has recieved increasing attention over the last 20 years as a psychological trait and process that associates with wellbeing. Research on mindfulness-based interventions suggest that mindfulness training promotes emotion regulation, evidenced by decreased self-reported stress and depression; enhances cognitive processing, namely executive functions; and regulates physiological parameters of health, including immune function. In more recent years, research has started to examine the benefits of mindfulness training in older adults populations. Dr. Fiocco will discuss the potential benefits of cultivating mindfulness for emotional and cognitive wellbeing in later adulthood.
Alexandra Fiocco, Ph.D.
Department of Psychology
Over human history, cold exposure has been associated with many risks (i.e. injury, hypothermia, death) and benefits (i.e. anti-inflammatory, adaptive metabolic and physiological responses). Clearly, as exercise, cold exposure comes in many different forms, intensities and durations that lead to different outcomes. In this context, any potential metabolic benefits need to be contextualized within a range of cold conditions. With the rediscovery in 2009 of substantial amount of brown adipose tissue (BAT) in adult humans, intensive efforts have been made to identify the potential role of this highly thermogenic tissue and cold exposure, its most potent stimulant, in the prevention and treatment of obesity and obesity related diseases. These reports suggests that age, gender, BMI and the presence of diabetes are also important modulators of BAT volume and metabolic activity. This presentation summarizes the current understanding of the pathophysiological functions of cold exposure and BAT in humans and discusses some of the strengths and limitations of the current investigational techniques. It also highlights the effects of chronic cold exposure on body weight regulation and potential treatment of metabolic diseases.
Francois Haman, Ph.D.
Faculty of Health Sciences
University of Ottawa
We know it works, but how do we get people to do it?” Helping individuals with chronic conditions stick to a recommended diet and physical activity regimen
Long-term management of a chronic condition through diet and physical activity requires self-regulatory skills to maintain adherence to a healthy diet and regular physical activity. Dr. Jung will provide an overview of her community-based diabetes prevention program as an example of how evidence-based behaviour change techniques, motivational interviewing-informed counselling, and mHealth technologies can be successfully utilized in the management of chronic diseases in a feasible and sustainable manner. Specific self-regulatory skills that will be covered in this talk that are translatable to many chronic conditions are self-monitoring, feedback and biofeedback, and action planning. By focusing on empowering patients to incorporate lessons learnt into their own independent lives (aka, the real world), dependence on interventionists is minimized and adherence is optimized.
Mary Jung, Ph.D.
Faculty of Health and Social Development Univeristy of British Columbia
Neurocognition of Vascular Risk Factors: The Long Path towards Stroke&Dementia
Stroke and Dementia are commonly regarded as diseases of late life with typical onsets in the 7th decade and beyond. Vascular risk factors particularly hypertension, obesity, diabetes, and smoking are supposed to lead to secondary consequences such as arteriosclerosis which eventually lead to brain damage underlying stroke and dementia.
In this talk, I will challenge these assumptions as being far too simplistic. I will show that the “path towards stroke and dementia” starts with the development of risk factors much earlier in life. Focusing on obesity and hypertension I will demonstrate that their (early) development is associated with neurobehavioral and neurocognitive alterations: a vicious cycle involving behavioral, neural, metabolic and vascular components – similarly to addictions – which is fueled by societal and environmental factors. In parallel, slowly progressive brain damage – indexed by brain atrophy, white matter lesions, accumulation of amyloid beta and Tau – develops along with cognitive deterioration. In this view, rather than events “out of the blue in late life”, clinically apparent dementia and stroke are the tip of the iceberg occurring after a long and gradual development.
Neuroimaging and behavioral parameters will serve as diagnostically and therapeutically useful biomarkers at every stage during the “long path leading towards stroke and dementia”.
Schaare HL et al. 2019, Neurology in press
Lampe L et al. 2019, Ann Neurol 85:194-203
Mathar et al. 2017 Cortex 95:222-237
Schlögl H et al. 2016 Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol 4:695-705.
Arno Villringer, Ph.D.
Max Planck Institute for Human Cognitive and Brain Sciences
Dietary carbohydrates in the prevention and treatment of Type II Diabetes
Diabetes is considered to be a global epidemic with its worldwide prevalence increasing from 108 million (1 in 21 adults) 1980 in over 400 million (1 in 11 adults) today. Diabetes is the leading cause of blindness, renal failure and lower-limb amputation, and a leading cause of stroke, heart attack and death. Over 90% of people with diabetes have type 2 diabetes. Type 2 diabetes is caused by an inability of the pancreatic beta-cells to secrete enough insulin to overcome insulin resistance. Although it has been known for 20 years that increased exercise and weight management can prevent or delay the onset of type 2 diabetes, there is no consensus as to what is the best dietary approach to promote for weight management and the treatment of diabetes. Much controversy revolves around the role of dietary carbohydrates, including starches and sugars. Dietary recommendations indicate that 45-65% of energy intake should come from carbohydrates; but many believe that carbohydrates promote obesity and diabetes and should be reduced to 10-20% of energy or less. Observational studies show that risk for diabetes is not associated with the total amount of sugars or carbohydrates consumed, but rather diabetes risk is related to the source of dietary carbohydrates. Sugars are only associated with increased risk for diabetes if consumed in sugar-sweetened beverages. Reduced risk for diabetes is associated with high consumption of naturally occurring sugars in fruit, and added sugars in foods, such as yogurt and cereals. Similarly, the risk for diabetes is not associated with total carbohydrate intake, but, rather, with the quality of the carbohydrates consumed; carbohydrates associated with reduced risk for diabetes include whole grains, those high in fiber and those with a low glycemic index. The long-term effect of low-carbohydrate diets in the treatment of diabetes depends on what replaces carbohydrate as an energy source in the diet. The long-term effect of diets containing 45-65% energy in the treatment of diabetes depends on the source of the carbohydrate. Diabetes Canada recommends that a variety of dietary patterns and specific foods have been shown to be of benefit in people with type 2 diabetes and that people with diabetes should be encouraged to choose the dietary pattern that best aligns with their values, preferences and treatment goals, allowing them to achieve the greatest adherence over the long term.
Thomas Wolever, Ph.D.
Department of Nutritional Sciences
University of Toronto