Librarian for History
Librarian for Irish Studies
Librarian of the Azrieli Holocaust Collection
Image: Bonnie Prince Charlie, undated engraving.
America: History and Life
Canadian and U.S. history
World History except Canada and the U.S.
International Medieval Bibliography (IMB) Online
Medieval Europe, the Middle East, and Africa
ITER: Gateway to the Middle Ages and Renaissance
Medieval and Renaissance Europe
Primary sources provide first-hand testimony or direct evidence concerning a topic under investigation. They are created by witnesses or recorders who experienced the events or conditions being documented. These sources are often created at the time when the events or conditions are happening, but they can also include autobiographies, memoirs, and oral histories recorded later. Primary sources are characterized by their content, regardless of whether they are available in original format like manuscripts, letters, or diaries, in microfilm/microfiche, in digital format, or in published format.