Concordia University

http://www.concordia.ca/content/concordia/en/academics/undergraduate/calendar/current/sec31/31-060.html

Classics, Modern Languages and Linguistics

Section 31.060

Please note that the current version of the Undergraduate Calendar is up to date as of February 2017.

Faculty

Chair
MARK HALE, PhD Harvard University; Professor (Linguistics)
 
Professors
ANTHONY COSTANZO, MA University of Washington (Italian)
JOSÉ ANTONIO GIMÉNEZ-MICÓ, PhD Université de Montréal (Spanish)
BRADLEY J. NELSON, PhD University of Minnesota (Spanish)
CHARLES REISS, PhD Harvard University (Linguistics)
LADY ROJAS-BENAVENTE, PhD Université Laval (Spanish)
LIONEL J. SANDERS, PhD McMaster University (Classics)
ANNETTE TEFFETELLER, PhD McGill University (Linguistics)
 
Associate Professors
ALAN C. BALE, PhD McGill University (Linguistics)
M. CATHERINE BOLTON, PhD McMaster University (Classics)
DARIO BRANCATO, PhD University of Toronto (Italian)
MIRIAM DÍAZ, PhD University of Arizona (Spanish)
JANE E. FRANCIS, PhD Bryn Mawr College (Classics)
DANIELA ISAC, PhD University of Bucharest (Linguistics)
MADELYN J. KISSOCK, PhD Harvard University (Linguistics)
M. GORETTI RAMÍREZ, PhD Brown University (Spanish)
ROBERTO VIERECK SALINAS, PhD Universidad Complutense de Madrid (Spanish)
BRUNO VILLATA, PhD Université Laval (Italian)
 
Senior Lecturers
ELENA BENELLI, PhD Université de Montréal (Italian)
LIAN DUAN, PhD Hunan Normal University (Chinese)
LUIS OCHOA, MA McGill University, MA Universidad de Salamanca (Spanish)
 
Lecturers
ALEXANDER DALE, DPhil University of Oxford (Classics)
RASHA EL HAWARI, PhD Alexandria University (Arabic)
 
For the complete list of faculty members, please consult the Department website.


Location

Sir George Williams Campus
Faubourg Tower, Room: FB 1030
514-848-2424, ext. 231


Department Objectives

Classics programs have two related aims: first, to provide a solid background to the cultures of ancient Greece and Rome through written documents, including historical and literary sources, and archaeological evidence; and second, to train students to read and interpret texts in ancient Greek and Latin.
The Modern Language programs provide a stimulating intellectual milieu for learning and strengthening skills in critical thinking, language proficiency, intercultural understanding, literary studies and contemporary approaches to modern languages and cultures, particularly Spanish, Italian, German, Modern Arabic, and Modern Chinese.
Linguistics is the scientific study of the human language faculty. Teaching and research in the Linguistics programs focus on two areas: linguistics as a branch of cognitive science, encompassing fields such as syntax, phonology and language acquisition; and the nature of language change, with particular emphasis on the Indo-European language family.


Programs

The Department of Classics, Modern Languages and Linguistics offers undergraduate programs leading to the BA degree in Classics, Italian, Spanish, and Linguistics. In addition, it offers Minor and Certificate programs in German, Modern Arabic Language and Culture, and Modern Chinese Language and Culture.
 
Students are responsible for satisfying their particular degree requirements.
The superscript indicates credit value.
Students seeking admission to the honours program may apply either for direct entry on the University application form or, once in the program, to the departmental honours advisor normally following the completion of 30 credits.
All these programs can normally be completed within the regular three-year university sessions.
 
Classics
 
  60    BA Honours in Classics
  30    Honours Core consisting of:
    6    CLAS 2013 and 2023, or 2033 and 2043, or 2806, or 2906
    6    CLAS 2113 and 2123
    6    CLAS 2403 and 2423
    3    CLAS 2603
    6    CLAS 3833 and 3843, or 3913 and 3923
    3    CLAS 4903
 
          Concentration in Ancient History and Archaeology
  30    Honours Core (see above)
    3    CLAS 2303
    3    CLAS 2613 or 2623
    3    CLAS 2643 or 2673
    6    CLAS 3413 and 3433
    6    Chosen from CLAS 3633, 3643, 3653
    3    CLAS 3693
    3    CLAS 4603
    3    Credits in either Classics or another subject chosen in consultation with the Department
 
          Concentration in Classical Languages and Literature
  30    Honours Core (see above)
    6    CLAS 2013 and 2023, or 2033 and 2043, or 2806, or 2906
    6    CLAS 3203 and 3303
    6    CLAS 3833 and 3843, or 3913 and 3923
    6    CLAS 4103 and 4113, or 4203 and 4213
    6    Linguistics credits chosen in consultation with the Department
NOTE: Students who intend to apply to graduate programs in Classics are strongly encouraged to take the 400-level courses in both Latin and Ancient Greek.
 
  42    BA Major in Classics
  15    Major Core consisting of:
    6    CLAS 2113 and 2123
    6    CLAS 2403 and 2423
    3    CLAS 2603
 
          Concentration in Ancient History and Archaeology
  15    Major Core (see above)
    3    CLAS 2303
    3    CLAS 2613 or 2623
    3    CLAS 2643 or 2673
    6    CLAS 3413 and 3433
    6    Chosen from CLAS 3633, 3643, 3653
    3    CLAS 3693
    3    Credits in either Classics or another subject chosen in consultation with the Department
 
          Concentration in Classical Languages and Literature
  15    Major Core (see above)
    6    CLAS 2013 and 2023, or 2033 and 2043, or 2806, or 2906
    6    CLAS 3203 and 3303
    6    CLAS 3833 and 3843, or 3913 and 3923
    6    CLAS 4103 and 4113, or 4203 and 4213
    3    Credits in Classics or another subject chosen in consultation with the Department
 
  24    Minor in Classical Languages and Literature
    6    CLAS 2013 and 2023, or 2033 and 2043, or 2806, or 2906
    6    CLAS 2113 and 2123
    6    CLAS 3203 and 3303
    6    CLAS 3833 and 3843, or 3913 and 3923
 
  24    Minor in Classical Civilization
    6    CLAS 2113 and 2123
    6    CLAS 2403 and 2423
    3    CLAS 2603
    6    CLAS 2613 and 2623
    3    CLAS 3693
 
  24    Minor in Classical Archaeology
    3    CLAS 2603
    6    CLAS 2643 and 2673
    6    Chosen from CLAS 3633, 3643, 3653
    3    CLAS 3693
    3    CLAS 4603
    3    Credits in either Classics or another subject chosen in consultation
          with the Department


Arabic (Modern Standard)
 
  30    Minor in Modern Arabic Language and Culture
  18    MARA 2006, 2066, 2406
  12    Chosen from MARA 2503, 3013, 3083, 3103, 3653, 3983; FLIT 3623;
          HIST 2423; POLI 3913, 3953; RELI 2243, 3163, 3183, 3193
NOTE: Upon consultation with the Department, students with background in Arabic may be placed at a more advanced level in the language component of this program. Heritage speakers of Arabic and students with knowledge of the Arabic script must contact the Department for placement assessment.
 
  30    Certificate in Modern Arabic Language and Culture
  18    MARA 2006, 2066, 2406
  12    Chosen from MARA 2503, 3013, 3083, 3103, 3653, 3983; FLIT 3623;
          HIST 2423; POLI 3913, 3953; RELI 2243, 3163, 3183, 3193
NOTE: Upon consultation with the Department, students with background in Arabic may be placed at a more advanced level in the language component of this program. Heritage speakers of Arabic and students with knowledge of the Arabic script must contact the Department for placement assessment.
 
Chinese (Modern)
 
  30    Minor in Modern Chinese Language and Culture
  18    MCHI 2006, 2066, 2406
  12    Chosen from MCHI 2503, 3063, 3083, 3103, 3113, 3653, 3663, 3983,
          3996; HIST 2623, 3673; POLI 3353; RELI 3603
 
  30    Certificate in Modern Chinese Language and Culture
  18    MCHI 2006, 2066, 2406
  12    Chosen from MCHI 2503, 3063, 3083, 3103, 3113, 3653, 3663, 3983,
          3996; HIST 2623, 3673; POLI 3353; RELI 3603


German
 
  60    BA Honours in German*
  12    GERM 2406, or 2413 and 2423; 2563, 2573
  24    GERM 2713, 3013, 3023, 3063, 3073, 3083, 3653, 3663
  21    Credits chosen from 400-level courses in German, of which at least
          six credits must be from GERM 4053, 4063, 4613, 4623
    3    GERM 4903
NOTE: Upon consultation with the Department, advanced students may not be required to take any courses at the 200 level.
*Admission suspended for 2017-18.
 
  42    BA Major in German*
  12    GERM 2406, or 2413 and 2423; 2563, 2573
  15    Credits chosen from GERM 2713, 3013, 3023, 3063, 3073, 3083, 3653, 3663
  15    Credits chosen from 400-level courses in German, of which at least six credits
          must be from GERM 4053, 4063, 4613, 4623
NOTE: Upon consultation with the Department, advanced students may not be required to take any courses at the 200 level.
*Admission suspended for 2017-18.

  30    Minor in German
  15    Credits chosen from GERM 2006, or 2013 and 2023; 2406, or 2413 and
          2423; 3013; 3053; 3083; 3103 or 3113; 3613 or 3623; 3983
  12    Credits chosen from GERM 2303 or 2313; 3023; 3053; 3063; 3073; 3083;
          3103 or 3113; 3613 or 3623; 3983; 4103; 4203; 4503; 4983
    3    Credits chosen from the 400 level
NOTE: Upon consultation with the Department, advanced students may not be required to take any courses at the 200 level.
 
Italian
 
  60    BA Honours in Italian
    6    ITAL 2406, or ITAL 2413 and 2423
  12    Credits chosen from ITAL 3013, 3023, 3103, 3113, 3653, 3663
  39    Credits in an approved sequence chosen from courses higher than ITAL 302,
          of which at least 12 credits must be at the 400 level
    3    ITAL 4903
NOTE: Upon consultation with the Department, advanced students may not be required to take any courses at the 200 level.
 
  42    BA Major in Italian
    6    ITAL 2406, or ITAL 2413 and 2423
  12    Credits chosen from ITAL 3013, 3023, 3103, 3113, 3653, 3663
  24    Credits in an approved sequence chosen from courses higher than ITAL 302, of which at least six credits must be at the 400 level
NOTE: Upon consultation with the Department, advanced students may not be required to take any courses at the 200 level.
 
  30    Minor in Italian
  30    Credits chosen from ITAL, of which at least 15 credits must be at the 300 level and three credits at the 400 level
NOTE: Upon consultation with the Department, advanced students may not be required to take any courses at the 200 level.


Spanish
 
  60    BA Honours in Spanish
  15    SPAN 2406 (or 2413 and 2423), 3013, 3023, 3033
  12    Credits chosen from SPAN 3103, 3113, 3203, 3213, 3623, 3633, 3653
  30    Credits chosen from all other courses above SPAN 303, of which at least
          21 credits must be at the 400 level
    3    SPAN 4903
NOTE: Upon consultation with the Department, advanced students may not be required to take any courses at the 200 level.
NOTE: Students registered in an Honours in Spanish program may not take SPAN 308 for program credit.
 
  60    BA Specialization in Spanish
  15    SPAN 2406 (or 2413 and 2423), 3013, 3023, 3033
  12    Credits chosen from SPAN 3103, 3113, 3203, 3213, 3623, 3633, 3653
  33    Credits chosen from all other courses above SPAN 303, of which at least
          21 credits must be at the 400 level
NOTE: Upon consultation with the Department, advanced students may not be required to take any courses at the 200 level.
 
  42    BA Major in Spanish
  15    SPAN 2406 (or 2413 and 2423), 3013, 3023, 3033
    6    Credits chosen from SPAN 3103, 3113, 3203, 3213
    3    Credits chosen from SPAN 3623, 3633, 3653
  18    Credits chosen from all other courses above SPAN 303, of which at least
          12 credits must be at the 400 level
NOTE: Upon consultation with the Department, advanced students may not be required to take any courses at the 200 level.
 
  30    Minor in Spanish
  21    SPAN 2006 (or 2013 and 2023), 2406 (or 2413 and 2423), 3013, 3023, 3033
    9    Credits chosen from courses above SPAN 303, of which at least three credits
          must be at the 400 level
NOTE: Upon consultation with the Department, advanced students may not be required to take any courses at the 200 level.
 
  33    Minor in Spanish Translation
  18    SPAN 2006 (or 2013 and 2023), 2406 (or 2413 and 2423), 3013, 3033
    6    SPAN 3063, 3073
    3    Credits chosen from SPAN 3623, 3633, 3653
    6    Credits chosen from SPAN 4733, 4743, 4753
NOTE: Upon consultation with the Department, advanced students may not be required to take any courses at the 200 level.


Linguistics
 
  24    Core Program
  24    LING 2003, 2223, 3153, 3203, 3363, 3723, 3733, 4203
 
  60    BA Honours in Linguistics
  24    Core Program
    3    Credits chosen from LING 3223, 3533, 3803
    9    LING 4213, 4253, 4753
    9    Credits chosen from LING 4153, 4293, 4363, 4373, 4733
    3    Credits chosen from LING 3303, 4463, 4473, 4563, 4573, 4613
    9    Additional LING credits
    3    LING 4903
 
  42    BA Major in Linguistics
  24    Core Program
    3    Credits chosen from LING 3223, 3533, 3803
    6    Credits chosen from LING 4153, 4213, 4253, 4293, 4733, 4753
    6    Credits chosen from LING 3303, 4363, 4373, 4463, 4473, 4563, 4573, 4613
    3    Additional LING credits
 
  24    Minor in Linguistics
    6    LING 2003, LING 2223
  18    Credits in Linguistics


Courses

PROGRAM COURSES:

Non-Program Courses:



Classics

CLAS 201        Introductory Ancient Greek I (3 credits)
This course presents students with the introductory elements of ancient Greek grammar, syntax, and vocabulary.
NOTE: Students who have received credit for CLAS 280 may not take this course for credit.
 
CLAS 202        Introductory Ancient Greek II (3 credits)
Prerequisite: CLAS 201. This course continues the study of Greek grammar, syntax, and vocabulary, and prepares students to begin reading ancient texts.
NOTE: Students who have received credit for CLAS 280 may not take this course for credit.
 
CLAS 203        Introductory Latin I (3 credits)
This course presents students with the introductory elements of Classical Latin grammar, syntax, and vocabulary.
NOTE: Students who have received credit for CLAS 290 may not take this course for credit.
 
CLAS 204        Introductory Latin II (3 credits)
Prerequisite: CLAS 203. This course continues the study of Classical Latin grammar, syntax, and vocabulary, and prepares students to begin reading ancient texts.
NOTE: Students who have received credit for CLAS 290 may not take this course for credit.
 
CLAS 211        Greek Literature (3 credits)
An introduction to the literature of ancient Greece, this course focuses on Homer and the epic cycle, the Homeric hymns, Hesiod and lyric poetry, tragedy and comedy. The texts are read in English translation.
 
CLAS 212        Roman Literature (3 credits)
An introduction to the major authors of the Roman world, this course focuses on Catullus, Virgil, Horace, Ovid and Lucretius; works of the dramatists, orators and satirists may also be included. The texts are read in English translation.
 
CLAS 221        Life and Times in Ancient Greece (3 credits)
This course explores the lifestyles, customs, and daily practices of the people of Ancient Greece through archaeological, historical, and literary sources.
NOTE: Students who have received credit for this topic under a CLAS 298 number may not take this course for credit.
 
CLAS 222        Life and Times in Ancient Rome (3 credits)
This course explores the lifestyles, customs, and daily practices of the people of Ancient Rome through archaeological, historical, and literary sources.
NOTE: Students who have received credit for this topic under a CLAS 298 number may not take this course for credit.

CLAS 230        (also listed as HIST 219)
                         Ancient Near East
(3 credits)
A political, social, economic, and intellectual his­tory of the ancient Near East, this course surveys the period from the origins of civilization in the middle of the fourth millennium to Alexander the Great’s conquest of the Persian Empire in the latter part of the fourth century BC.
NOTE: Students who have received credit for HIST 219 may not take this course for credit.
 
CLAS 240        (also listed as HIST 223)
                         Greek History from the Bronze Age to Alexander
(3 credits)
This course offers a political, social, economic, and cultural history of Greece from the Minoan-Mycenaean period in the second millennium to the end of Classical Greek civilization in the fourth century BC, with special emphasis placed upon Athens.
NOTE: Students who have received credit for HIST 223 may not take this course for credit.
 
CLAS 242        (also listed as HIST 225)
                         History of the Roman Republic
(3 credits)
This course offers a political, social, economic, and cultural history of Rome from the city’s origins to the establishment of the Roman Empire under the Emperor Augustus.
NOTE: Students who have received credit for HIST 225 may not take this course for credit.
 
CLAS 260        Introduction to Greek Archaeology (3 credits)
This course provides a general overview of the material remains of ancient Greece from the Bronze Age to the Hellenistic period. It addresses the function, context, dating, and meaning of artifacts, as well as methods of analysis.
NOTE: Students who have received credit for CLAS 266 may not take this course for credit.
 
CLAS 261        Greek Mythology (3 credits)
A survey of the myths of ancient Greece and their characters — deities, heroes, mortals and monsters, this course examines the significance of the myths within their own time and their relevance for the modern world. Both literary and visual sources are used.
 
CLAS 262        Mythology of the Ancient Mediterranean (3 credits)
An examination of the common mythological themes of the ancient Mediterranean, this course focuses on the events, the characters, and the significance of recurrent elements as found in the myths of Mesopotamia, Egypt, Greece, and Rome.
 
CLAS 264        Egyptian Archaeology (3 credits)
This course examines the principal monuments of Egypt from the predynastic through the Pharaonic period, ending with the Roman conquest of Egypt. Aspects considered may include the pyramids and tombs, paintings, writing systems, and archaeological evidence of Egyptian contributions to science, navigation, religion, and culture.
NOTE: Students who have received credit for this topic under a CLAS 298 number may not take this course for credit.
 
CLAS 267        The Archaeology of the Greek Bronze Age (3 credits)
The Bronze Age in Mainland Greece, Crete, and the Greek Islands.
 
CLAS 280        Introductory Ancient Greek: Intensive Course (6 credits)
Greek grammar, syntax, and vocabulary are presented in an intensive one-term course that enables students to begin reading ancient texts.
NOTE: Students who have received credit for CLAS 201 or 202 may not take this course for credit. This course covers the same material as CLAS 201 and 202.
 
CLAS 290        Introductory Latin: Intensive Course (6 credits)
Latin grammar, syntax, and vocabulary are presented in an intensive one-term course that enables students to begin reading ancient texts.
NOTE: Students who have received credit for CLAS 203 or 204 may not take this course for credit. This course covers the same material as CLAS 203 and 204.
 
CLAS 298        Selected Topics in Classics (3 credits)
 
CLAS 299        Selected Topics in Classics (6 credits)
 
Specific topics for these courses, and prerequisites relevant in each case, are stated in the Undergraduate Class Schedule.
 
CLAS 320        The Heroic Epics of Greece and Rome (3 credits)
Homer’s Iliad and Odyssey and Virgil’s Aeneid are considered in depth, with some attention given to other examples of epic, such as the Argonautica of Apollonius of Rhodes and Lucan’s Pharsalia. Topics include epic as a genre, the nature of oral poetry, ethical values presented and the epic tradition and innovation. The texts are read in English translation.

CLAS 330        Greek Drama (3 credits)
Designed as an introduction to Greek drama from the origins of tragedy in the sixth century to New Comedy, this course consists of a detailed study of selected plays of Aeschylus, Sophocles, Euripides, Aristophanes and Menander. Also con­sidered are Aristotle’s Poetics and production techniques of the Greek theatre. The texts are read in English translation.
 
CLAS 341        (also listed as HIST 323)
                         Greek History from Alexander to the Roman Conquest
(3 credits)
A political, social, economic, and cultural history of the Greek world from Alexander the Great to the Roman conquest of Greece in 146 BCE.
NOTE: Students who have received credit for CLAS 241 or HIST 224 or HIST 323 may not take this course for credit.
 
CLAS 343        (also listed as HIST 327)
                         History of the Roman Empire
(3 credits)
This course offers a political, social, economic, and cultural history of the Roman Empire from Augustus to the end of the Roman Empire in the West.
NOTE: Students who have received credit for CLAS 243 or HIST 226 or HIST 327 may not take this course for credit.
 
CLAS 353        Representations of Women in Ancient Greece and Rome (3 credits)
The ancient Greek and Roman representations of women are examined within their historical and cultural contexts. Focus is placed on the changing social roles, status and images of women in antiquity. Both visual and literary sources are used.
 
CLAS 363        Archaeology of Archaic Greece (3 credits)
Prerequisite: CLAS 260. This course explores the cultural developments of the period (ca. 650 to 450 BCE) through its material remains.
NOTE: Students who have received credit for CLAS 263 or for this topic under a CLAS 298 number may not take this course for credit.
 
CLAS 364        Classical Greek Art and Archaeology (3 credits)
Prerequisite: CLAS 260. An exploration of the monuments and artifacts of Classical Greece, ca. 480 to 380 BCE, this course concentrates on architecture, sculpture, vase painting, artistic production and methods of interpretation.
 
CLAS 365        Art and Archaeology of the Hellenistic Age (3 credits)
Prerequisite: CLAS 260. An investigation of the art and archaeology of the Hellenistic age from the death of Alexander in 323 to the mid-first century BCE, this course examines architecture, sculpture, mosaics, wall painting and the minor arts; emphasis is on the Roman influence on Greek art of the period.
 
CLAS 369        Roman Art and Archaeology (3 credits)
An introduction to the artifacts and monuments of Roman civilization from the sixth century BC through the Empire (third century AD), this course examines artistic styles, techniques, function, iconography and interpretation.
 
CLAS 370        Practicum in Archaeology (3 credits)
Prerequisite: Permission of the Department. This course is designed to give the student on-site fieldwork experience in either survey or excavation work. At least one month in the field is required.
 
CLAS 383        Intermediate Ancient Greek I (3 credits)
Prerequisite: CLAS 280 or 202 or equivalent. This course provides a review of Ancient Greek grammar and syntax and deals with additional features not covered in the introductory course. Practice is provided through short readings, discussions, and composition.
NOTE: Students who have received credit for CLAS 381 or 382, or for this topic under a CLAS 398 number, may not take this course for credit.
 
CLAS 384        Intermediate Ancient Greek II (3 credits)
Prerequisite: CLAS 383 or equivalent. This course completes the review of grammar and provides additional details not covered in Intermediate Ancient Greek I. Practice is provided through short readings, discussions, and composition.
NOTE: Students who have received credit for CLAS 381 or 382, or for this topic under a CLAS 398 number, may not take this course for credit.
 
CLAS 391        Reading Latin Prose (3 credits)
Prerequisite: CLAS 290 or 204 or equivalent. Prose works of authors such as Caesar, Cornelius Nepos, Cicero and Pliny are read in the original Latin text. Attention is given to further study of grammatical and syntactical structures of the language.
NOTE: Students who have received credit for CLAS 390 may not take this course for credit.
 
CLAS 392        Reading Latin Poetry (3 credits)
Prerequisite: CLAS 290 or 204 or equivalent. Selected works of the Roman poets are read in the original Latin text, with emphasis on Catullus, Ovid, Martial and Petronius. Attention is given to further study of grammatical and syntactical structures of the language.
NOTE: Students who have received credit for CLAS 390 may not take this course for credit.

CLAS 398        Selected Topics in Classics (3 credits)
 
CLAS 399        Selected Topics in Classics (6 credits)
 
Specific topics for these courses, and prerequisites relevant in each case, are stated in the Undergraduate Class Schedule.
 
CLAS 410        Studies in Greek Literature: Prose (3 credits)
Prerequisite: CLAS 383 or equivalent; CLAS 384 or equivalent previously or concurrently. Works of the Greek historians, philosophers and orators are studied in depth. While authors read vary from year to year, the primary focus is on Herodotus, Thucydides, Plato or Demosthenes.
 
CLAS 411        Studies in Greek Literature: Poetry (3 credits)
Prerequisite: CLAS 383 or equivalent; CLAS 384 or equivalent previously or concurrently. Works of Greek epic, lyric or dramatic poetry are studied in depth. While authors read vary from year to year, the primary focus is on Homer, Aeschylus, Sophocles, Euripides or Pindar.
 
CLAS 420        Advanced Latin Prose (3 credits)
Prerequisite: CLAS 391 and 392, or equivalent. Works of the Roman historians, philosophers and orators are studied in depth. While authors read vary from year to year, the primary focus is on Cicero, Sallust, Livy or Tacitus.
 
CLAS 421        Advanced Latin Poetry (3 credits)
Prerequisite: CLAS 391 and 392, or equivalent. Works of the Roman poets are studied in depth. While authors read vary from year to year, the primary focus is on Virgil, Ovid, Horace, Juvenal or Lucretius.
 
CLAS 460        Ancient Pottery: History, Analysis, and Interpretation (3 credits)
Prerequisite: CLAS 260 and completion of 6 credits at the 300-level in Archaeology. This course introduces students to the most common archaeological artifact, pottery. It addresses the technology and history of Greek and Roman ceramic wares, and uses a hands-on approach to instruct students in strategies for extracting information from pottery sherds.
 
CLAS 480        Tutorial (3 credits)
Prerequisite: Permission of the Department. This course provides students with the opportunity to study a topic of individual interest under the guidance of a faculty member.
 
CLAS 490        Honours Thesis (3 credits)
Prerequisite: Permission of the Department. The student works with an individual faculty member in a particular area of archaeology, history or philology to produce an extensive research paper.
 
CLAS 498        Advanced Topics in Classics (3 credits)
 
CLAS 499        Advanced Topics in Classics (6 credits)
 
Specific topics for these courses, and prerequisites relevant in each case, are stated in the Undergraduate Class Schedule.



Arabic (Modern Standard)

THE DEPARTMENT RESERVES THE RIGHT TO TRANSFER A STUDENT TO A HIGHER-LEVEL LANGUAGE COURSE IF IT IS DEEMED THAT THE COURSE FOR WHICH THE STUDENT HAS REGISTERED IS NOT APPROPRIATE FOR THE EXTENT OF HIS OR HER KNOWLEDGE OF THE LANGUAGE.
 
MARA 200       Introduction to Modern Standard Arabic I (6 credits)
This course provides an intensive introduction to the basic elements of Modern Standard Arabic for the student with no knowledge of the language. Instruction addresses all the language competencies of Modern Standard Arabic.
NOTE: Students who have received credit for MARA 203 or 205 or 207 or heritage speakers or students with knowledge of the Arabic script may not take this course for credit.
 
MARA 203       Modern Standard Arabic for Heritage Speakers I (3 credits)
This course provides an introduction to the basic elements of Modern Standard Arabic for students with basic or limited knowledge of the language. It is designed for heritage speakers with no reading and writing skills in Modern Standard Arabic but with knowledge of dialect vocabulary and oral skills. The course is also for non-heritage students who know the Arabic script but have never studied the Arabic language.
NOTE: Heritage speakers placed into this course can continue with MARA 207 while non-heritage speakers can continue with MARA 206 upon successful completion of this course.
NOTE: Students who have received credit for this topic under a MARA 298 number may not take this course for credit.
 
MARA 206       Introduction to Modern Standard Arabic II (6 credits)
Prerequisite: MARA 200 or 203 or equivalent. This course continues the introduction to the basic elements of Modern Standard Arabic. Students practise conversation skills on basic general topics.
NOTE: Students who have received credit for MARA 207 may not take this course for credit.

MARA 207       Modern Standard Arabic for Heritage Speakers II (3 credits)
Prerequisite: MARA 203 or permission of the Department. This course continues the introduction to the basic elements of Modern Standard Arabic. Students practise conversation skills through basic general topics. This course is designed for Arabic heritage speakers who have completed MARA 203 and/or learners who have basic introductory Arabic competence.
 
MARA 240       Intermediate Modern Standard Arabic I (6 credits)
Prerequisite: MARA 206 or 207 or equivalent. This course provides a review of the basic elements of Modern Standard Arabic and continues to develop the four language skills within their cultural context. Students prepare brief essays and oral presentations.
 
MARA 250       Intermediate Modern Standard Arabic II (3 credits)
Prerequisite: MARA 240 or equivalent. This course is a continuation of MARA 240. It prepares intermediate language students in diverse aspects of reading, writing, and conversation. In addition to improving listening comprehension and speaking skills, this course places increased emphasis on reading and writing.
 
MARA 301       Advanced Arabic (3 credits)
Prerequisite: MARA 250 or equivalent. This course builds upon the student’s foundation in the Arabic language. Students learn new grammatical structures and expand their vocabulary, while reviewing the grammatical structures acquired previously. Instruction builds particularly on the student’s ability to respond to the works studied with advanced writing and oral strategies.
 
MARA 308       Arabic for Business (3 credits)
Prerequisite: MARA 250 previously or concurrently. This course is designed to give intermediate and advanced students a solid foundation in business vocabulary, correspondence, and basic business practices, as well as the cultural concepts necessary to enable them to express themselves in the Arabic-speaking business world.
NOTE: Students who have received credit for this topic under a MARA 398 number may not take this course for credit.
 
MARA 310       Introduction to the Literature of the Arab World (3 credits)
This course provides an introduction to the works of some of the major writers of contemporary Arabic culture. The course is taught in English and readings are in English translation.
 
MARA 320       Modern Arabic Fiction (3 credits)
This course examines key developments in Arabic fiction related to the contemporary Arabic-speaking world with the aim of highlighting the distinctive texture of its experiences and identities. The chosen texts cover a wide range of topics and convey the complex and rich cultural diversity of the Arab World. The course is taught in English and knowledge of Arabic is not required.
 
MARA 365       The Culture and Civilization of the Arab World (3 credits)
This course provides an overview of the cultural manifestations of the Arab world. Topics include art, literature, culture, history, and philosophy. This course is taught in English.
 
MARA 398       Special Topics in Arabic Language and Culture (3 credits)
Specific topics for this course, and prerequisites relevant in each case, are stated in the Undergraduate Class Schedule.
 
MARA 480       Tutorial (3 credits)
Prerequisite: Permission of the Department. This course provides students with the opportunity to study a topic of individual interest under the guidance of a faculty member.


Chinese (Modern)

THE DEPARTMENT RESERVES THE RIGHT TO TRANSFER A STUDENT TO A HIGHER-LEVEL LANGUAGE COURSE IF IT IS DEEMED THAT THE COURSE FOR WHICH THE STUDENT HAS REGISTERED IS NOT APPROPRIATE FOR THE EXTENT OF HIS OR HER KNOWLEDGE OF THE LANGUAGE.
 
MCHI 200         Introduction to Modern Chinese I (6 credits)
This course provides an intensive introduction to the basic elements of Chinese for the student with no knowledge of the language. Emphasis is on basic grammatical concepts, listening comprehension, and sound reproduction. Approximately 300 characters are studied.
NOTE: Students whose first language is Chinese, or who have received a substantial part of their education in Chinese, may not register for this course.
NOTE: Students who have received credit for MCHI 205 may not take this course for credit.
NOTE: Lab practice is compulsory in addition to class time: two hours per week for six-credit sections.
 
MCHI 206         Introduction to Modern Chinese II (6 credits)
Prerequisite: MCHI 200. This course continues the introduction to the basic elements of Chinese, adding approximately 300 further characters.
NOTE: Students whose first language is Chinese, or who have received a substantial part of their education in Chinese, may not register for this course.
NOTE: Lab practice is compulsory in addition to class time: two hours per week for six-credit sections.

MCHI 240         Intermediate Modern Chinese I (6 credits)
Prerequisite: MCHI 206 or equivalent. The aim of this course is to consolidate the knowledge acquired in MCHI 200 and 206 and pursue communication skills on basic general topics in all competencies of the language, adding approximately 300 further characters.
 
MCHI 250         Intermediate Modern Chinese II (3 credits)
Prerequisite: MCHI 240 or equivalent. This course is a continuation of MCHI 240. It prepares intermediate language students in diverse aspects of reading, writing, and conversation. In addition to improving listening comprehension and speaking skills, this course places increased emphasis on reading and writing.
NOTE: Students who have received credit for this topic under an MCHI 398 number may not take this course for credit.
 
MCHI 306         Introduction to Translation (3 credits)
Prerequisite: MCHI 250 previously or concurrently. The emphasis of this course is placed on advanced grammar for the purposes of writing and translation.
NOTE: Students who have received credit for this topic under an MCHI 398 number may not take this course for credit.
 
MCHI 308         Chinese for Business (3 credits)
Prerequisite: MCHI 250 previously or concurrently. This course provides students with marketable skills including linguistic competence, cross-cultural proficiency, and knowledge about business in China across a variety of fields.
 
MCHI 310         Introduction to Modern Chinese Literature (3 credits)
This course provides an introduction to the works of some of the major writers of contemporary Chinese culture. The course is taught in English and reading materials are in English translation.
 
MCHI 311         Classical Chinese Literature (3 credits)
Taught in English, this course introduces classical Chinese literature from 1500 BCE to the end of the 19th century in its historical and cultural setting. Covering the four major literary genres of poetry, prose, drama and fiction, students learn both key Chinese aesthetic concepts and Western critical theory, with a view to encouraging cross- and intercultural interpretations. Major works are read in English translation.
NOTE: Students who have received credit for this topic under an MCHI 398 number may not take this course for credit.
 
MCHI 365         Introduction to Chinese Cultural Traditions (3 credits)
This course is an introduction to the formation and traditions of Chinese culture. Topics may include Confucian and Taoist philosophy, literature, and the arts. This course is taught in English.
NOTE: Students who have received credit for this topic under an MCHI 398 number may not take this course for credit.
 
MCHI 366         Chinese Visual Culture (3 credits)
Taught in English, this course introduces students to the traditions and achievements of Chinese visual culture. Employing contemporary critical approaches, students explore both mass and high cultures, with a primary focus on the development of Chinese painting from the 10th century to the present, with an emphasis on the interpretation of images.
NOTE: Students who have received credit for this topic under an MCHI 398 number may not take this course for credit.
 
MCHI 398         Special Topics in Chinese Language and Culture (3 credits)
Specific topics for this course, and prerequisites relevant in each case, are stated in the Undergraduate Class Schedule.
 
MCHI 399         Special Topics in Chinese Language and Culture (6 credits)
Specific topics for this course, and prerequisites relevant in each case, are stated in the Undergraduate Class Schedule.
 
MCHI 480         Tutorial (3 credits)
Prerequisite: Permission of the Department. This course provides students with the opportunity to study a topic of individual interest under the guidance of a faculty member.


German

THE DEPARTMENT RESERVES THE RIGHT TO TRANSFER A STUDENT TO A HIGHER-LEVEL LANGUAGE COURSE IF IT IS DEEMED THAT THE COURSE FOR WHICH THE STUDENT HAS REGISTERED IS NOT APPROPRIATE FOR THE EXTENT OF HIS OR HER KNOWLEDGE OF THE LANGUAGE.
 
GERM 200       Introductory German: Intensive Course (6 credits)
This course provides a comprehensive introduction to most of the basic elements of the German language for the student with no knowledge of German. Practice is provided through short readings, conversation, composition, and lab work.
NOTE: Students who have received credit for GERM 201, 202, or equivalent may not take this course for credit.
NOTE: This course covers the same material as GERM 201 and 202.
 
GERM 201       Introductory German I (3 credits)
This course provides an introduction to the elements of the German language for the student with no knowledge of German. Practice is provided through short readings, conversation, composition, and lab work.
NOTE: Students who have received credit for GERM 200 or equivalent may not take this course for credit.

GERM 202       Introductory German II (3 credits)
Prerequisite: GERM 201 or equivalent. This course is a continuation of GERM 201 and completes the study of the basic elements of the German language. Practice is provided through short readings, conversation, composition, and lab work.
NOTE: Students who have received credit for GERM 200 or equivalent may not take this course for credit.
 
GERM 230       Introduction to German Culture (3 credits)
This course offers a panoramic study of the major components of the culture of German-speaking countries from the Middle Ages to contemporary times. Attention is given to these countries’ artistic, social, political, and economic life. This course is taught in English.
 
GERM 231       German Literature in Translation (3 credits)
This course focuses on reading and discussion of 20th-century literary works and films from Germany, Austria, and Switzerland. Works translated from German are used. This course is taught in English, but advanced German students are encouraged to read the texts in German.
 
GERM 240       Intermediate German: Intensive Course (6 credits)
Prerequisite: GERM 200 or 202. This course provides a review of German grammar in a single term and furnishes additional details not dealt with in the introductory courses. Practice is provided through readings, discussions, and composition.
NOTE: Students who have received credit for GERM 241, 242, or equivalent may not take this course for credit.
NOTE: This course covers the same material as GERM 241 and 242.
 
GERM 241       Intermediate German I (3 credits)
Prerequisite: GERM 200 or 202. This course provides a review of German grammar and deals with additional details not covered in the introductory courses. Practice is provided through short readings, discussions, and composition.
NOTE: Students who have received credit for GERM 240 or equivalent may not take this course for credit.
 
GERM 242       Intermediate German II (3 credits)
Prerequisite: GERM 241 or equivalent. This course is a continuation of GERM 241. It completes the review of the grammar and includes additional details not covered in the introductory courses. Practice is provided through short readings, discussions, and composition.
NOTE: Students who have received credit for GERM 240 or equivalent may not take this course for credit.
 
GERM 260       German for Reading Knowledge (3 credits)
This course introduces the student to reading strategies, grammar, resources, and basic vocabulary and leads to a second-year reading knowledge of German in 13 weeks. This course is taught in English.
NOTE: Students registered in the German Minor program may not take this course for credit.
 
GERM 298       Selected Topics in German (3 credits)
Specific topics for this course, and prerequisites relevant in each case, are stated in the Undergraduate Class Schedule.
 
GERM 301       Advanced Grammar and Composition I (3 credits)
Prerequisite: GERM 240 or 242 or permission of the Department. This course is designed to help students understand advanced aspects of German grammar and to provide practice in the correct and effective writing of German.
 
GERM 302       Advanced Grammar and Composition II (3 credits)
Prerequisite: GERM 301. This course continues the study of advanced aspects of German grammar and provides practice in the correct and effective writing of German by means of composition such as the summary, description, narration, argumentation, and essay.
 
GERM 305       Conversational German (3 credits)
Prerequisite: GERM 240 or 242 or equivalent. This course is offered to non-native speakers of German. Its main goal is for students to improve their oral proficiency in German. This course aims to increase students’ competence levels in listening, reading, and writing.
NOTE: Students who have received credit for GERM 270 or 370 may not take this course for credit.
 
GERM 306       Introduction to Translation (3 credits)
Prerequisite: GERM 240 or 242. This course examines German and English grammar in a comparative context in order to provide a basis for translation between the two languages. It also aims to develop lexical and semantic knowledge of the German language through analysis of textual materials, with special focus on words and idiomatic expressions that are essential to clear and effective communication. Students translate short texts from a variety of fields, primarily from English to German.
 
GERM 307       Translation Practice (3 credits)
Prerequisite: GERM 306. This course continues the examination of German and English grammar in a practical context as a basis for translation between the two languages. It also enhances student lexical and semantic knowledge of the German language through direct, practical experience in translation. Students improve their vocabulary and linguistic accuracy by exploring the range of meanings associated with particular structures and idiomatic expressions. Translation is primarily from English to German.

GERM 308       German for Business (3 credits)
Prerequisite: GERM 240 or 242 or equivalent. This course provides students with marketable skills including linguistic competence, cross-cultural proficiency, and knowledge about business in Germany across a variety of fields.
NOTE: Students who have received credit for this topic under a GERM 398 number may not take this course for credit.
 
GERM 310       Introduction to Modern German Literature I (3 credits)
Prerequisite: GERM 301. This course provides a general overview of the major authors and trends of German literature from 1750 to 1900 within an historical context.
 
GERM 311       Introduction to Modern German Literature II (3 credits)
Prerequisite: GERM 301. This course provides a general overview of the major authors and trends of German literature in the 20th century within an historical context.
 
GERM 361       Topics in the Culture of German-Speaking Nations (3 credits)
Prerequisite: GERM 240 or 242. Topics vary from year to year. Possible topics include German film; literature of the Counter-culture; Germany and the Holocaust; immigrant culture and its discourse; women’s writing; popular culture; Medieval Germany: kings, castles, and minstrels; cultural diversity in German-speaking nations. Specific topics for this course are stated in the Undergraduate Class Schedule.
NOTE: Students may take this course twice for credit in their program provided the subject matter is different.
 
GERM 362       Modern Germany (3 credits)
Prerequisite: GERM 240 or 242. This course gives an overview of the developments in Germany throughout the 20th century. The emphasis of the course may vary from year to year with such topics as Germany between World War I and II, the formative years after WWII and the development of East and West Germany, and the unified Germany. Materials to be studied include historical and topical documents, film, video, and web-based resources.
 
GERM 398       Selected Topics in German (3 credits)
Specific topics for this course, and prerequisites relevant in each case, are stated in the Undergraduate Class Schedule.
 
GERM 410       Cyborgs, Robots and Automata in German Literature, Film and Video Games (3 credits)
This course examines the figure of the android and explores representations of artificial beings in German literature, cinema, and video games. A focus is on issues of technology, art, gender, race, and class. Students receive insights into narrative constructions as well as ludology (including game history, design and reception) by exploring how video games challenge traditional models of understanding and approaching texts. The language of instruction is English, and no prior knowledge of the German language is required. Advanced-level students — i.e. students placed at the 300 level or higher in German language courses — must do the readings and submit their work in German.
 
GERM 420       Of German Witches, Ghosts, Daemons and Vampires (3 credits)
This course explores how the strange, the magical, the supernatural and the uncanny (Das Unheimliche) are constructed in German texts from 1500 to the present. This course surveys a wide array of texts (novels, short stories, historical documents, fairy tales, films as well as video games) that deal with the phenomena of witches, ghosts, daemons and vampires. The language of instruction is English, and no prior knowledge of the German language is required. Advanced-level students — i.e. students placed at the 300 level or higher in German language courses — must do the readings and submit their work in German.
 
GERM 450       German Women Writers Across the Ages (3 credits)
This course investigates the changing literary and social roles of German women from the 18th to the 21st century. Selected readings of women’s literary and cultural productions will also illustrate the history of gender coding from the period of Empfindsamkeit to the fin de siècle. In addition to examining cultural artifacts, such as novels, plays, screen scripts, paintings and advertisements, the course also offers an insight into the Women’s movement (both in Eastern and Western Germany). An introduction to main concepts of gender theory provides the basis to analyze the variety of gender identities and representations. The language of instruction is English, and no prior knowledge of the German language is required. Advanced-level students — i.e. students placed at the 300 level or higher in German language courses — must do the readings and submit their work in German.
 
GERM 480       Tutorial I (3 credits)
Prerequisite: Permission of the Department. This course offers guided readings in German language and/or literature, to meet the student’s individual needs. At least one major written assignment is required.
 
GERM 481       Tutorial II (3 credits)
Prerequisite: Permission of the Department. This course offers guided readings in German language and/or literature, to meet the student’s individual needs. At least one major written assignment is required.
 
GERM 482       Tutorial III (3 credits)
Prerequisite: Permission of the Department. This course offers guided readings in German language and/or literature, to meet the student’s individual needs. At least one major written assignment is required.
 
GERM 483       Tutorial IV (3 credits)
Prerequisite: Permission of the Department. This course offers guided readings in German language and/or literature, to meet the student’s individual needs. At least one major written assignment is required.

GERM 490       Honours Essay Tutorial (3 credits)
Prerequisite: Honours status. This course provides the honours candidate with the opportunity to prepare an extensive research essay, on a topic to be chosen by the candidate with the approval of a supervising member of the faculty of the German section.
 
GERM 498       Advanced Topics in German (3 credits)
Specific topics for this course, and prerequisites relevant in each case, are stated in the Undergraduate Class Schedule.


Italian

THE DEPARTMENT RESERVES THE RIGHT TO TRANSFER A STUDENT TO A HIGHER-LEVEL LANGUAGE COURSE IF IT IS DEEMED THAT THE COURSE FOR WHICH THE STUDENT HAS REGISTERED IS NOT APPROPRIATE FOR THE EXTENT OF HIS OR HER KNOWLEDGE OF THE LANGUAGE.
 
ITAL 200          Introductory Italian: Intensive Course (6 credits)
This course provides a comprehensive introduction to the Italian language, completing the fundamental aspects of grammar in one term.
NOTE: Students who have received credit for ITAL 201 or 202 or 210 or 211 or 253 or 254 may not take this course for credit.
NOTE: This course covers the same material as ITAL 201 and 202.
 
ITAL 201          Introductory Italian I (3 credits)
This course provides an introduction to the basic elements of Italian for the student with no knowledge of the language.
NOTE: Students who have received credit for ITAL 200 or 210 or 211 or 253 or 254 may not take this course for credit.
 
ITAL 202          Introductory Italian II (3 credits)
Prerequisite: ITAL 201 or equivalent. The objective is to complete the study of fundamental aspects of Italian grammar.
NOTE: Students who have received credit for ITAL 200 or 210 or 211 or 253 or 254 may not take this course for credit.
 
ITAL 210          Italian for Heritage Speakers I (3 credits)
Prerequisite: Permission of the Department. This course provides an introduction to the basic elements of the Italian language and is designed for heritage speakers of Italian and/or students with some previous passive knowledge or exposure to the language, who wish to strengthen their linguistic knowledge of and skills in Italian. Emphasis is placed on grammar, reading and writing, vocabulary development, and exposure to the language and culture of Italian communities. Both oral and written expression are emphasized.
NOTE: Students who have received credit for ITAL 200 or 201 or 202 or 253 or 254, or for this topic under an ITAL 298 number, may not take this course for credit.
 
ITAL 211          Italian for Heritage Speakers II (3 credits)
Prerequisite: ITAL 210 or permission of the Department. This course is a continuation of ITAL 210 designed for heritage speakers of Italian and/or students with some previous passive knowledge or exposure to the language, who wish to strengthen their linguistic knowledge of and skills in Italian. Emphasis is placed on grammar, reading and writing, vocabulary development, and exposure to the language and culture of Italian communities. Both oral and written expression are emphasized.
NOTE: Students who have received credit for ITAL 200 or 201 or 202 or 253 or 254, or for this topic under an ITAL 298 number, may not take this course for credit.
 
ITAL 240          Intermediate Italian: Intensive Course (6 credits)
Prerequisite: ITAL 200 or 202 or 211 or equivalent. This course provides a review of Italian grammar in one term and deals with additional details not covered in the introductory course. Practice is provided through readings, discussions, and composition.
NOTE: Students who have received credit for ITAL 241 or 242 or 253 or 254 may not take this course for credit.
NOTE: This course covers the same material as ITAL 241 and 242.
 
ITAL 241          Intermediate Italian I (3 credits)
Prerequisite: ITAL 200 or 202 or 211 or equivalent. This course provides a review of Italian grammar and deals with additional details not covered in the introductory courses. Practice is provided through short readings, discussions, and composition.
NOTE: Students who have received credit for ITAL 240 or 253 or 254 may not take this course for credit.
 
ITAL 242          Intermediate Italian II (3 credits)
Prerequisite: ITAL 241 or equivalent. This course is a continuation of ITAL 241. It completes the review of the grammar and provides additional details not covered in the introductory courses. Practice is provided through short readings, discussions, and composition.
NOTE: Students who have received credit for ITAL 240 or 253 or 254 may not take this course for credit.
 
ITAL 298          Selected Topics in Italian (3 credits)
 
ITAL 299          Selected Topics in Italian (6 credits)
 
Specific topics for these courses, and prerequisites relevant in each case, are stated in the Undergraduate Class Schedule.

ITAL 301          Advanced Grammar and Writing I (3 credits)
Prerequisite: ITAL 240 or 242 or 254 or equivalent with a grade of C or higher. This course provides students with a thorough grounding in the essentials of Italian grammar, while revising and improving morpho-syntactic structures and syntax, as well as developing reading comprehension techniques, commentary writing skills, acquiring competence in essay writing and developing oral and aural skills. Aspects of Italian history, culture, and contemporary life are also introduced through readings, listening materials, videos and films and through the use of online technologies.
 
ITAL 302          Advanced Grammar and Writing II (3 credits)
Prerequisite: ITAL 301 or equivalent. This course continues to provide students with a thorough grounding in the fundamentals of Italian grammar. The course also focuses on using effective stylistic resources and formal conventions in writing, especially for essays and related texts. Aspects of Italian history, culture, and contemporary life are introduced through readings, listening materials, videos and films and through the use of online technologies.
 
ITAL 303          Introduction to Academic Writing in Italian (3 credits)
Prerequisite: ITAL 240 or 242 or equivalent with a grade of C or higher. This course offers a survey of the major rhetorical devices and methodological tools for the critical reading of literary and other texts, and for the production of academic essays in Italian. The course covers basic notions of narratology and rhetoric, as well as discourse analysis and critical thinking. Activities include close reading of texts and practical work in research and documentation, as well as the presentation of well-organized, analytical prose.
NOTE: Students who have received credit for this topic under an ITAL 398 number may not take this course for credit.
 
ITAL 305          Communicative Strategies and Oral Communication (3 credits)
Prerequisite: ITAL 240 or 242 or equivalent with a grade of C or higher. The main goal of this course is to improve students’ oral communication in Italian. The course also develops other language skills: listening, reading, and to some extent, writing.
NOTE: This course is offered to non-native speakers of Italian. Upon consultation with the Department, heritage speakers of Italian may receive permission to take this course for credit.
NOTE: Students who have received credit for this topic under an ITAL 398 number may not take this course for credit.
 
ITAL 306          Introduction to Translation (3 credits)
Prerequisite: ITAL 240 or 242 or equivalent with a grade of C or higher. This course examines Italian and English grammar in a comparative context to provide a sound basis for translation between the two languages. It also aims to develop lexical and semantic knowledge of the Italian language through analysis of textual materials. Students translate short texts from a variety of fields such as literature, business, journalism, politics, and science. Translation is primarily from English to Italian.
NOTE: Students who have received credit for ITAL 256 or 257, or for this topic under an ITAL 398 number, may not take this course for credit.
 
ITAL 307          Translation Practice (3 credits)
Prerequisite: ITAL 306 or equivalent. This course is a continuation of ITAL 306. It deals with advanced problems and techniques of translation from Italian and into Italian.
NOTE: Students who have received credit for ITAL 256 or 257, or for this topic under an ITAL 398 number, may not take this course for credit.
 
ITAL 308          Italian for Business (3 credits)
Prerequisite: ITAL 240 or 242 or 254 or equivalent with a grade of C or higher. This course is designed to give intermediate-advanced level students a solid foundation in business vocabulary, correspondence, and basic business practices, as well as the cultural concepts necessary to enable them to express themselves in the Italian-speaking business world.
 
ITAL 310          Survey of Italian Literature I (3 credits)
Prerequisite: ITAL 240 or 242 or 254 or equivalent with a grade of C or higher. This course examines the major authors and trends of Italian literature from its origins to the end of the 16th century.
 
ITAL 311          Survey of Italian Literature II (3 credits)
Prerequisite: ITAL 240 or 242 or 254 or equivalent with a grade of C or higher. This course examines the major authors and trends of Italian literature from the beginning of the 17th century to the present.
 
ITAL 365          Italian Civilization I (3 credits)
Prerequisite: ITAL 240 or 242 or 254 or equivalent with a grade of C or higher. This course provides a survey of Italy’s cultural and scientific achievements until the end of the 17th century. Attention is given to Italy’s social, political, and economic life.
 
ITAL 366          Italian Civilization II (3 credits)
Prerequisite: ITAL 240 or 242 or 254 or equivalent with a grade of C or higher. This course provides a survey of Italy’s cultural and scientific achievements from the beginning of the 18th century to the present day. Attention is given to Italy’s social, political, and economic life.
 
ITAL 367          Cultural Views of Italy (3 credits)
This course focuses on politics, literature, and the arts in Italy from Dante and the Italian Renaissance to the present. The language of instruction is English, and no prior knowledge of the Italian language is required. Advanced-level students — i.e. students placed at the 300 level or higher in Italian language courses — must submit their work in Italian.
NOTE: Students who have received credit for this topic under an ITAL 298 number may not take this course for credit.

ITAL 398          Selected Topics in Italian (3 credits)
 
ITAL 399          Selected Topics in Italian (6 credits)
 
Specific topics for these courses, and prerequisites relevant in each case, are stated in the Undergraduate Class Schedule.
 
ITAL 415          Dante and the Middle Ages (3 credits)
Prerequisite: ITAL 301 or equivalent. In this course selected passages of the Vita nuova, the Monarchia, and other earlier works are studied. Dante’s contributions to the formation of the Italian language, literature, and culture are considered in their historical, social, and political context.
 
ITAL 416          Dante: Divina Commedia (3 credits)
Prerequisite: ITAL 301 or equivalent. This course undertakes an analysis of selected cantos of the Divina Commedia as a synthesis of medieval culture.
 
ITAL 422          Petrarch and Boccaccio (3 credits)
Prerequisite: ITAL 301 or equivalent. This course examines the origin and evolution of the early Italian novella. Petrarch and Boccaccio are studied as forerunners of humanism; emphasis is placed on Petrarch’s Canzoniere and Boccaccio’s Decameron.
 
ITAL 427          Italian Humanism and the Renaissance (3 credits)
Prerequisite: ITAL 301 or equivalent. This course deals with the rise of humanism and analyzes the Renaissance as a historical and cultural concept. References are made to the social, historical, and artistic trends in 15th- and early-16th-century Italy. Emphasis is on representative works of Alberti, Valla, Leonardo da Vinci, Pico della Mirandola and Machiavelli.
 
ITAL 434          The Epic Tradition in Italy (3 credits)
Prerequisite: ITAL 301 or equivalent. This course explores the nature and evolution of the chivalresque genre in Italy, mainly within the context of the 15th and 16th centuries, and with special emphasis on Ariosto and Tasso.
 
ITAL 435          The Baroque Age in Italy (3 credits)
Prerequisite: ITAL 301 or equivalent. This course presents a study of the Baroque as a cultural concept, and deals with representative literary, historical, artistic, and scientific works from such figures as Marino, Sarpi, Campanella, Galileo, and Bernini.
 
ITAL 436          The Age of Enlightenment in Italy (3 credits)
Prerequisite: ITAL 301 or equivalent. This course examines the Enlightenment as a cultural concept, and provides a study of representative texts of such authors as Goldoni, Vico, Parini, and Beccaria.
 
ITAL 439          Romanticism in Italy (3 credits)
Prerequisite: ITAL 301 or equivalent. This course examines the concept of Romanticism in Italy and its relation to Risorgimento. Emphasis is on representative works of Foscolo, Manzoni, and Leopardi. References are made to the role of leading political figures of the period.
 
ITAL 443          Post-unification Italian Culture: From Verismo to Futurism (3 credits)
Prerequisite: ITAL 301 or equivalent. This course provides a study of the debate on the nature of Realism and the avant-garde in Italy in the late-19th and early-20th centuries. Readings are taken from such authors as Verga, Carducci, D’Annunzio and Marinetti.
 
ITAL 445          Literature and Culture in Fascist Italy (3 credits)
Prerequisite: ITAL 301 or equivalent. This course explores the literary trends in Italy between the first and second World Wars within a historical and political context. It provides a study of representative works of such figures as Svevo, Pirandello, and Montale. Leading critical thinkers such as Croce and Gramsci are taken into consideration.
 
ITAL 446          Cultural Expressions in Italy from Neo-Realism to the Present (3 credits)
Prerequisite: ITAL 301 or equivalent. This course examines the debate on Neo-realism and looks at literary and cinematographic expressions. It also deals with the Neo-avanguardia movement and questions of gender and post-modernism. Emphasis is on Calvino, Sciascia, Fellini, Antonioni, and Eco. References are also made to the social and political reality of contemporary Italy.
 
ITAL 450          Feminist Discourse in Italy (3 credits)
Prerequisite: ITAL 301 or equivalent. This course studies the question of gender as a concept and traces its presence within the Italian cultural tradition from the Renaissance to the present. Representative works of figures such as Franco, Marinelli, de Fonseca Pimentel, Deledda, Aleramo, and Maraini are studied.
 
ITAL 461          History of the Italian Language I (3 credits)
Prerequisite: ITAL 301 or equivalent. This course examines the social, cultural and linguistic changes leading to the formation of the Italian vernaculars and the standardization of the Italian language, from its origins to the 17th century. Representative and theoretical texts illustrating different medieval and Renaissance theories (Dante’s, and Pietro Bembo’s in particular), are studied. Attention is also given to other Romance languages.

ITAL 462          History of the Italian Language II (3 credits)
Prerequisite: ITAL 301 or equivalent. This course examines the social, cultural and linguistic changes involving the Italian language, from the 18th century to the present day. Representative and theoretical texts illustrating different modern and contemporary theories are studied. This course also explores the Italian dialects, and regional varieties of Italian.
 
ITAL 480          Tutorial I (3 credits)
Prerequisite: Permission of the Department. This course consists of guided readings in Italian language and/or literature, and is designed to meet the individual needs of advanced students. Assignments include written and oral criticism of the works studied.
 
ITAL 481          Tutorial II (3 credits)
Prerequisite: Permission of the Department. This course consists of guided readings in Italian language and/or literature, and is designed to meet the individual needs of advanced students. Assignments include written and oral criticism of the works studied.
 
ITAL 482          Tutorial III (3 credits)
Prerequisite: Permission of the Department. This course consists of guided readings in Italian language and/or literature, and is designed to meet the individual needs of advanced students. Assignments include written and oral criticism of the works studied.
 
ITAL 483          Tutorial IV (3 credits)
Prerequisite: Permission of the Department. This course consists of guided readings in Italian language and/or literature, and is designed to meet the individual needs of advanced students. Assignments include written and oral criticism of the works studied.
 
ITAL 490          Honours Essay Tutorial (3 credits)
Prerequisite: Honours status. This course provides the honours candidate with the opportunity to prepare an extensive research essay, on a topic to be chosen by the candidate with the approval of a supervising member of the faculty of the Italian section.
 
ITAL 498          Advanced Topics in Italian (3 credits)
 
ITAL 499          Advanced Topics in Italian (6 credits)
 
Specific topics for these courses, and prerequisites relevant in each case, are stated in the Undergraduate Class Schedule.



Spanish

THE DEPARTMENT RESERVES THE RIGHT TO TRANSFER A STUDENT TO A HIGHER-LEVEL LANGUAGE COURSE IF IT IS DEEMED THAT THE COURSE FOR WHICH THE STUDENT HAS REGISTERED IS NOT APPROPRIATE FOR THE EXTENT OF HIS OR HER KNOWLEDGE OF THE LANGUAGE.
 
SPAN 200        Introductory Spanish: Intensive Course (6 credits)
This course provides a comprehensive introduction to the Spanish language, completing the fundamental aspects of grammar in one term.
NOTE: Students who have received credit for SPAN 201 or 202 may not take this course for credit.
NOTE: This course covers the same material as SPAN 201 and 202.
 
SPAN 201        Introductory Spanish I (3 credits)
This course provides an introduction to the basic elements of Spanish for the student with no knowledge of the language.
NOTE: Students who have received credit for SPAN 200 may not take this course for credit.
 
SPAN 202        Introductory Spanish II (3 credits)
Prerequisite: SPAN 201 or equivalent. The objective of this course is to complete the study of fundamental aspects of Spanish grammar.
NOTE: Students who have received credit for SPAN 200 may not take this course for credit.
 
SPAN 240        Intermediate Spanish: Intensive Course (6 credits)
Prerequisite: SPAN 200 or 202 or equivalent. This course provides a review of Spanish grammar in a single term and furnishes additional details not dealt with in the introductory courses. Practice is provided through readings, discussions, and composition.
NOTE: Students who have received credit for SPAN 241 or 242 may not take this course for credit.
NOTE: This course covers the same material as SPAN 241 and 242.
 
SPAN 241        Intermediate Spanish I (3 credits)
Prerequisite: SPAN 200 or 202 or equivalent. This course provides a review of Spanish grammar and deals with additional details not covered in the introductory courses. Practice is provided through short readings, discussions, and composition.
NOTE: Students who have received credit for SPAN 240 may not take this course for credit.
 
SPAN 242        Intermediate Spanish II (3 credits)
Prerequisite: SPAN 241 or equivalent. This course is a continuation of SPAN 241. It completes the review of the grammar and includes additional details not covered in the introductory courses. Practice is provided through short readings, discussions, and composition.
NOTE: Students who have received credit for SPAN 240 may not take this course for credit.

SPAN 298        Special Topics in Spanish (3 credits)
 
SPAN 299        Special Topics in Spanish (6 credits)
 
Specific topics for these courses, and prerequisites relevant in each case, are stated in the Undergraduate Class Schedule.
 
SPAN 301        Grammar and the Process of Writing I (3 credits)
Prerequisite: SPAN 240 or 242 or equivalent with a grade of C or higher. This course offers a practical analysis of the conventions that govern grammar, spelling, punctuation, and syntax in Peninsular and Latin-American Spanish. It also focuses on the means of identifying, analyzing, and using effective stylistic resources in different forms of writing such as summaries, notes, journals, and short stories.
 
SPAN 302        Grammar and the Process of Writing II (3 credits)
Prerequisite: SPAN 301 or equivalent. This course continues the practical analysis of grammar and focuses on using effective stylistic resources and formal conventions in writing, especially for essays and related texts.
 
SPAN 303        Critical Reading of Hispanic Texts (3 credits)
Prerequisite: SPAN 301. This course offers a survey of the major rhetorical devices and methodological tools for the critical reading of literary and other texts, and for the production of well-founded and persuasive writing in Spanish. The course covers notions of narratology and poetics, as well as discourse analysis and critical thinking. Activities include close reading of Hispanic texts and practical work in research and documentation, as well as the presentation of well-organized, analytical prose.
 
SPAN 305        Communicative Strategies and Oral Communication for Non-Native Speakers (3 credits)
Prerequisite: SPAN 240 or 242 or equivalent with a grade of C or higher. This course is offered to non-native speakers of Spanish only. Its main goal is for students to improve their oral production in Spanish. This course also encourages improved levels of competence in the other language skills: listening, reading, and to some extent writing.
NOTE: Students who have received credit for this topic under a SPAN 398 number may not take this course for credit.
 
SPAN 306        Introduction to Translation (3 credits)
Prerequisite: SPAN 240 or 242 or equivalent with a grade of C or higher. This course examines Spanish and English grammar in a comparative context in order to provide a sound basis for translation between the two languages. It also aims to develop lexical and semantic knowledge of the Spanish language through analysis of textual materials. Students translate short texts from a variety of fields such as literature, business, journalism, politics, and science. Translation is primarily from English to Spanish (some reference to French is included).
 
SPAN 307        Translation Practice (3 credits)
Prerequisite: SPAN 306 or equivalent. This course continues the examination of Spanish and English grammar in a practical context as a basis for translation between the two languages. It also enhances the students’ lexical and semantic knowledge of the Spanish language through direct, practical experience in translation. Students translate texts from a variety of fields, with a particular emphasis on business, finance, tourism, journalism, and the arts. Translation is primarily from English to Spanish (some reference to French is included).
 
SPAN 308        Spanish for Business (3 credits)
Prerequisite: SPAN 240 or 242 or equivalent with a grade of C or higher. This course is designed to give students a solid foundation in business vocabulary and basic business practices, as well as the cultural concepts necessary to enable them to function in the Spanish-speaking business world. Activities may include the elaboration of different types of business documents, oral group activities and simulations, and the development of strategies needed for comprehension through visual and/or aural material.
NOTE: Students registered in an Honours in Spanish program may not take this course for program credit.
 
SPAN 310        Conquest and Empire: Spanish Literature from the 12th to the 17th Centuries (3 credits)
Prerequisite: SPAN 240 or 242 or equivalent with a grade of C or higher. This course introduces students to medieval and early modern Spanish literature by examining the relationship between cultural manifestations and emergent narratives of Spanish national history. Students are also introduced to literary analysis and its relation to socio-cultural issues through activities that may include small group discussions, close readings, short analytical papers, and essay exams.
 
SPAN 311        Crisis and Introspection: Spanish Literature from the 18th to the 21st Centuries (3 credits)
Prerequisite: SPAN 240 or 242 or equivalent with a grade of C or higher. This course introduces students to modern Spanish literature and examines the relationship between these cultural manifestations and Spain’s difficult tran­sition towards modernity, with special emphasis on the Generation of ’98 and its role in the debates that culminated in the Spanish Civil War. Students are also introduced to literary analysis and its relation to socio-cultural issues through activities that may include small group discussions, close readings, short analytical papers, and essay exams.
 
SPAN 320        Defining Difference in Spanish America: Literature from 1500 to 1880 (3 credits)
Prerequisite: SPAN 240 or 242 or equivalent with a grade of C or higher. This course introduces students to the richly varied texts of colonial Spanish America and the early independence era. It examines how from its very beginnings Spanish-American discourse attempts to distinguish itself from Peninsular traditions throughout the various cultural eras and within its socio-political contexts. Readings include letters, chronicles, poetry, and essays. Activities may include critical reading, oral discussions and presentations, summaries, and brief essays.

SPAN 321        Identity and Independence in Spanish America: Literature from 1880 to the Present (3 credits)
Prerequisite: SPAN 240 or 242 or equivalent with a grade of C or higher. This course introduces students to the literature of the period following independence. It examines how the literature defines Spanish-American identities in urban and rural perspectives, in different genres and genders, throughout the cultural eras of the period, and within its socio-political contexts. Readings include poetry, essays, short stories, and excerpts from novels. Activities may include critical reading, oral discussions and presentations, summaries, and brief essays.
 
SPAN 362        Cultures of Mexico, the Central American Region, and the Spanish Caribbean (3 credits)
Prerequisite: SPAN 240 or 242 or equivalent with a grade of C or higher. This course introduces students to the cultural manifestations of the nations of these regions within an historical framework. Emphasis is on the interaction between the events that shape the area, the wide variety of cultures that arose there, and the forms of artistic endeavour through which the peoples express themselves. Mexico, Cuba, and Colombia are given special importance; the history and culture of the Dominican Republic, Venezuela, Puerto Rico, and the Central American countries are also highlighted. Activities may include oral discussions and presentations, analysis of written and visual texts, use of relevant Internet resources, summaries, and brief essays.
 
SPAN 363        Cultures of the Southern Cone and the Andean Region (3 credits)
Prerequisite: SPAN 240 or 242 or equivalent with a grade of C or higher. This course introduces students to the cultural achievements of the nations of the region within an historical framework. Emphasis is on the interaction between the events that shape the area, the wide variety of cultures that arose there, and the forms of artistic endeavour through which the many different peoples express themselves. Argentina, Peru, and Chile are given special importance; the history and culture of Uruguay, Ecuador, and Bolivia are also highlighted. Activities may include oral discussions and presentations, analysis of written and visual texts, use of relevant Internet resources, summaries, and brief essays.
 
SPAN 365        The History of Spanish Culture (3 credits)
Prerequisite: SPAN 240 or 242 or equivalent with a grade of C or higher. This course examines important linguistic, literary, and artistic developments of Spanish culture as they relate to the invention, consolidation, and critique of a unique Spanish identity. Activities may include oral discussions and presentations, analysis of written and visual texts, use of relevant Internet resources, summaries, and brief essays.
 
SPAN 371        Phonetics and Phonology of Spanish (3 credits)
Prerequisite: SPAN 301 or permission of the Department. Students in this course gain knowledge to describe the sound system of Spanish and to contrast it with English. Practical applications stemming from this course include: (a) gaining awareness and improving one’s Spanish pronunciation; (b) learning to efficiently perceive and describe different varieties of Spanish; and (c) learning to identify pronunciation problems of learners of Spanish as a foreign language.
NOTE: Students who have received credit for this topic under a SPAN 398 number may not take this course for credit.
 
SPAN 398        Special Topics in Spanish (3 credits)
 
SPAN 399        Special Topics in Spanish (6 credits)
 
Specific topics for these courses, and prerequisites relevant in each case, are stated in the Undergraduate Class Schedule.
 
SPAN 406        From Orality to Literacy in Medieval Spain, 1100-1500 (3 credits)
Prerequisite: SPAN 303, 310. This course examines the ways in which oral-popular discourses are appropriated by the representatives of “official” culture, as well as how emerging institutions fashion their message around a nascent concern with Hispanic identity in works from the late period of Spain’s era of Reconquest. Topics of inquiry may include the social and political function of oral poetry, the importance of ritualistic cultural phenomena, the growing importance of vernacular literature, and the processes of canon formation.
 
SPAN 411        Freedom and Containment in Spanish Golden Age Prose, 1550-1700 (3 credits)
Prerequisite: SPAN 303, 310. This course considers a selection of narrative texts from the Spanish Golden Age in order to examine the relationship between the reading subject and an emergent official culture. Through close textual analysis and critical discussion of representative works by authors such as Cervantes, Quevedo, and Zayas, students study and discuss literary and extra-literary issues representative of this period. Course topics may include theories of reader reception, the role of censorship, the construction of gender, and the creation of social types and anti-types.
 
SPAN 412        Golden Age Drama and Poetry: Theatricality in Renaissance and Baroque Spain, 1500-1690 (3 credits)
Prerequisite: SPAN 303, 310. This course carries out a comparative study of the rhetorical strategies of literary and extra-literary representation in Golden Age Spain, and their role in the creation of an early modern subject of mass visual culture. Through close textual analysis and critical discussions of representative works by Spanish poets and playwrights such as Garcilaso, Lope, Góngora, Quevedo, Tirso, and Calderón, students examine a number of literary and theoretical topics. These may include the performative aspects of poetry, the literary uses of pictorial perspective, and the relationship between subjectivity and theatricality.
 
SPAN 415        Towards Modernity and Liberalism in Spain, 1808-1898 (3 credits)
Prerequisite: SPAN 303 or equivalent. This course examines the debates that arose during Spain’s problematic transition towards cultural, political, and economic liberalism in the 19th century, from the outbreak of the Independence War against France until the fall of the Empire in the Americas. Content may vary from year to year and may include authors such as Zorrilla, Bécquer, Galdós, and Clarín. Topics may include competing visions of rationalism and Romanticism, the interplay of literary, scientific, and economic discourses, photography and new ways of seeing reality, and the relationship between the rise of the bourgeoisie and the reconceptualization of private space.
NOTE: Students who have received credit for SPAN 416 or 417 may not take this course for credit.
 
SPAN 418        Cultural Conflicts and Modernity in Spain, 1898-1939 (3 credits)
Prerequisite: SPAN 303 or equivalent. This course examines the cultural and ideological conflicts that took place in Spain between the fall of the Spanish Empire and the Civil War. Through close readings and critical discussions of works by authors such as Unamuno, Ortega, García Lorca, and Buñuel, students consider topics that may include the ethics of violence in cultural conflict, the relationship between culture and ideology, the role of emotions in the shaping of national identity, and the tension between humanism and technical progress.
NOTE: Students who have received credit for SPAN 419 may not take this course for credit.
 
SPAN 420        Dictatorship and Exile in Modern Spain, 1939-1975 (3 credits)
Prerequisite: SPAN 303 or equivalent. This course examines literary and cultural discourses in Spain during Franco’s dictatorship. Content may vary from year to year and may focus on the literature produced under the dictatorship or in exile. Through close readings and critical discussions of works by authors such as Bergamín, Erice, Aub, and Matute, students consider topics that may include the impact of censorship on cultural history, cultural hegemony and exile, reactionary ideologies of modernity, and the role of silence and fragmentary discourse against official constructions of the nation.
NOTE: Students who have received credit for SPAN 419 may not take this course for credit.
 
SPAN 422        Spain in Transition: 1960 to the Present (3 credits)
Prerequisite: SPAN 303 or equivalent. This course examines Spanish literature in the context of the country’s evolution towards cultural post-modernity, since the final years of Franco’s dictatorship until today. Through close readings and critical discussions of works by authors such as Brossa, Goytisolo, Almodóvar, and the Novísimos group, students consider topics that may include the intertwining of official history and personal memory, the emergence of pop culture, the destabilization of modern identities, and nationalism at the turn of the century.
 
SPAN 441        Romanticism and the Construction of Identity in Spanish America, 1820-1890 (3 credits)
Prerequisite: SPAN 303 or equivalent. This course examines Spanish-American literature and culture of the 19th century in terms of the efforts to define national character through discourses on nature, the peoples, history, and traditions. The relationship of these discourses with Romanticism, the role of the writer, and the image and function of the feminine are particularly examined. Students study representative works by authors such as Heredia, Sarmiento, Gómez de Avellaneda, and Hernández. Students are introduced to the formulation of critical discourse through a series of short essays and oral presentations.
 
SPAN 442        Modernism: Modernity and Rebellion, Rupture and Innovation in Spanish-American Letters, 1880-1920 (3 credits)
Prerequisite: SPAN 303 or equivalent. Through the study of representative literary and other cultural texts, as well as the critical debates of the era (such as those concerning industrialization, U.S. hegemony and feminism), this course examines the various phases in the development of a Spanish-American consciousness towards modernity and cultural autonomy. Students study representative works by authors such as Martí, Gutiérrez Nájera, Darío, Lugones, and some women authors of the period. Students are introduced to the formulation of critical discourse by writing a series of short essays and delivering oral presentations.
 
SPAN 443        The Spanish-American “Boom” and its Predecessors, 1950-1980 (3 credits)
Prerequisite: SPAN 303 or equivalent. This course examines a selection of Spanish-American novels and essays of the period between approximately 1950 and 1975, known as the Boom. Through close textual analysis and a study of critical debates, the course considers literary and extra-literary issues representative of this period, including lo real maravilloso and magical realism as Latin-American specificities, the relationship between history and fiction, and the debate between regionalism and cosmopolitism. Authors studied may include Carpentier, García Márquez, Puig and Allende.
 
SPAN 450        The Short Narrative in Spain and Spanish America (3 credits)
Prerequisite: SPAN 303 or equivalent. From its beginnings as an independent genre in the 19th century to the most recent minifiction, this course examines the short story in light of different theories of narratology, specifically as relating to the short narrative. Texts are taken from representative authors from either or both Spain and Spanish America, within their cultural context. Students are introduced to the formulation of critical discourse through a series of short essays and an oral presentation; students also write their own short fiction.
 
SPAN 451        Dramatic Representations in Hispanic Cultures (3 credits)
Prerequisite: SPAN 303 or equivalent. This course introduces students to fundamental concepts in the study of Hispanic drama and film, as well as to wider issues of theatricality and performance. It deals with the cultural and historical relation between literature and the visual arts, and presents some basic tools and techniques of research and criticism as related to Hispanic theatre and cinema. The course may include student representations of scenes from plays studied.
 
SPAN 453        From Object to Subject: Women and Discourse in Spain and Spanish America (3 credits)
Prerequisite: SPAN 303 or equivalent. This course introduces texts from different historical periods from various theoretical perspectives. Particular attention is given to theoretical perspectives pertinent to Spain and Spanish America. The function of gender in Hispanic discourse, representation of women, and strategies of expression in women writers are some of the topics that may be examined.

SPAN 455        Perspectives on the Teaching of Spanish (3 credits)
Prerequisite: SPAN 303 with a grade of C or higher, or equivalent. This course provides students with basic knowledge of and structured practice in the principal approaches to the teaching of Spanish to speakers of other languages. Topics may include a selection of approaches to the teaching of Spanish, such as task-based learning, communicative methods, process writing, grammar for teachers of Spanish, the use of computer technology and Internet resources for the teaching of Spanish, the development of didactic material, as well as the incorporation of Hispanic cultural material.
NOTE: Students who have received credit for this topic under a SPAN 498 number may not take this course for credit.
 
SPAN 461        The History of the Spanish Language (3 credits)
Prerequisite: SPAN 371 or permission of the Department. This course examines the historical and cultural evolution of the Spanish language. Topics to be considered may include the phonological and morphological development of Vulgar Latin, the development of variants between Peninsular and Spanish-American expression, and the dialogic and conflictive nature of linguistic change. In-class and take-home activities may include the translation of medieval and early modern Spanish texts into their modern equivalents.
 
SPAN 462        Introduction to Spanish Linguistics (3 credits)
Prerequisite: SPAN 303 or equivalent. This course provides an introduction to the basic concepts and analytical techniques of linguistics as applied specifically to the Spanish language. It covers the main areas of Hispanic linguistics, including phonetics and phonology, morphology and syntax of the Spanish language. It may also cover topics related to semantics, pragmatics, dialectology, sociolinguistics and second language acquisition of Spanish. Activities include linguistic analysis of the sounds, words and sentences of Spanish, as well as comparisons to the structure of English and/or French when applicable. This course provides the basis for further study in the field.
NOTE: Students who have received credit for this topic under a SPAN 498 number may not take this course for credit.
 
SPAN 464        Current Issues in the Hispanic Cultures: Spanish America (3 credits)
Prerequisite: SPAN 301; 362 or 363, or equivalent. This course explores current newsworthy events and affairs in the political, social, and cultural spheres of Spanish America as seen through various media sources such as newspapers, magazines, radio and television, and the Internet. It includes a systematic study of techniques of oral expression. As such, activities emphasize oral skills and may include team-based class work and presentations, brief summaries, journal, and oral exams. Format and content vary from year to year.
 
SPAN 465        Current Issues in the Hispanic Cultures: Spain (3 credits)
Prerequisite: SPAN 301, 365. This course explores current newsworthy events and affairs in the political, social, and cultural spheres of Spain as seen through various media sources such as newspapers, magazines, radio and television, and the Internet. It includes a systematic study of techniques of oral expression. As such, activities emphasize oral skills and may include team-based class work and presentations, brief summaries, journal, and oral exams. Format and content vary from year to year.
 
SPAN 467        The Avant-Gardes in Spanish America and Spain and their Repercussions in the Arts (3 credits)
Prerequisite: SPAN 303 or equivalent. Starting from an introduction to major currents of the historical Avant-garde (1920-1940), such as Futurism, Cubism, Dadaism, and Surrealism, the course traces the impact of the avant-gardes throughout 20th-century Hispanic poetry and the visual arts. Students explore particular manifestations of these currents in the art and poetry of Spanish America (Creacionismo and Negrismo) and Spain (la Generación del ’27). Emphasis is placed on the role of the artist-poet as engaged actor of radical change in all dimensions of social and political life.
 
SPAN 469        Hispanic Poetry and Poetics (3 credits)
Prerequisite: SPAN 303 or equivalent. This course examines poetic discourse in Hispanic culture. Through close readings and critical discussions of works by Spanish and/or Spanish-American poets, students consider topics that may include the rhetorical and linguistic strategies of poetic discourse, poetry as ideology, poetry and the body, and the relationship between poetry and other written and oral forms of discourse.
 
SPAN 470        Spanish-American Testimonio Discourse (3 credits)
Prerequisite: SPAN 303; 362 or 363; or equivalent. This course offers a comprehensive study of the struggle between subaltern voices and mainstream culture, as manifested in testimonio discourse. The study includes an examination of the controversy surrounding testimonio with respect to its status as a literary genre and the question of appropriation of marginalized voices. Texts may include journalistic prose, essay, biography, and oral manifestations of subaltern groups. Authors may include Burgos/Menchú, Barnet/Montejo and Davis/Pablo.
 
SPAN 471        The Art of Persuasion: the Hispanic Essay (3 credits)
Prerequisite: SPAN 303 or equivalent. This course examines the genre of essay writing in Spain and/or Spanish America. A concise historical overview traces the development of this genre to the present. The study of different types of rhetorical strategies, discourse, and objectives in essay writing focuses on contemporary texts. Students learn to develop their own skills towards the writing of effective persuasive prose.
 
SPAN 472        Discourses of Discovery, Colonization, and Resistance in Spain and Spanish America (3 credits)
Prerequisite: SPAN 303, 310. This course examines the colonial subject as s/he appears in early modern articulations of the imperial centre and its relation to the colonial periphery, as well as in the emerging centres of Spanish America. Through close textual analysis and critical dis­cussions of representative works by Peninsular and Colonial authors such as Columbus, Las Casas, Sor Juana and el Inca Garcilaso, stu­dents investigate topics that may include the rhetorical and legal tropes of discovery and their construction of an abject “other,” the historical conditions that inform the chronicles of conquest, and strategies of cultural resistance employed by criollo and Amerindian subjects.
 
SPAN 473        Literary Translation in Spanish (3 credits)
Prerequisite: SPAN 301, 306; SPAN 303 previously or concurrently. This course examines the history and principles of literary translation with reference to translation between the Spanish- and English-speaking worlds. Literary translations both from Spanish to English and vice versa are analyzed within a critical context, and students translate essays, short stories, and poetry into both languages. Equal attention is paid to Spanish and English stylistics.
 
SPAN 474        Translation for Specific Fields (3 credits)
Prerequisite: SPAN 301, 306; SPAN 303 previously or concurrently. This course concentrates on the technical and stylistic elements of translation of texts from a variety of fields such as business, journalism, tourism, telecommunications, and international trade. Material to be translated includes actual texts, and activities involve analysis of translation strategies and of terminological challenges pertinent to effective written communication in each domain. Translation is from both Spanish to English and English to Spanish.
 
SPAN 475        Translation Issues in Spanish American Culture (3 credits)
Prerequisite: SPAN 303 previously or concurrently; SPAN 306 or equivalent. The goal of this course is to critically revise the cultural, literary, and aesthetic role of translation in Latin American culture, particularly with regard to its textual production. Through reading and discussion of theoretical authors such as F. Schleiermacher, J. Ortega y Gasset, L. Venuti, H. K. Bhabha, and W. Mignolo, students analyze representative texts of Latin American culture which practically and aesthetically incorporate different problems and/or strategies of translation in the transcultural context of a globalization process of more than five centuries.
 
SPAN 480        Tutorial I (3 credits)
Prerequisite: Permission of the Department. This course consists of guided readings in Spanish language and/or Hispanic literature, culture, and translation, to meet the individual student’s needs.
 
SPAN 481        Tutorial II (3 credits)
Prerequisite: Permission of the Department. This course consists of guided readings in Spanish language and/or Hispanic literature, culture, and translation, to meet the individual student’s needs.
 
SPAN 482        Tutorial III (3 credits)
Prerequisite: Permission of the Department. This course consists of guided readings in Spanish language and/or Hispanic literature, culture, and translation, to meet the individual student’s needs.
 
SPAN 483        Tutorial IV (3 credits)
Prerequisite: Permission of the Department. This course consists of guided readings in Spanish language and/or Hispanic literature, culture, and translation, to meet the individual student’s needs.
 
SPAN 490        Honours Project (3 credits)
Prerequisite: Honours status. This course provides the honours candidate with the opportunity to prepare an extensive research project on a topic to be chosen by the candidate with the approval of a supervising member of the faculty of the Spanish section.
 
SPAN 498        Advanced Topics in Spanish (3 credits)
 
SPAN 499        Advanced Topics in Spanish (6 credits)
 
Specific topics for these courses, and prerequisites relevant in each case, are stated in the Undergraduate Class Schedule.


Linguistics

LING 200          Introduction to Linguistic Science (3 credits)
This course provides an introduction to the principles of general linguistics for beginners in the field. There is an emphasis on synchronic linguistic analysis, with a brief examination of historical and comparative linguistics.
 
LING 222       Language and Mind: The Chomskyan Program (3 credits)
This course uses language as a tool to examine the workings of the human mind. It approaches the study of language from the perspective of generative grammar as developed by Noam Chomsky and his collaborators. It deals with patterns of linguistic structure, rather than content or meaning. The goal of this course is to develop an understanding of the field of cognitive science (the study of knowledge and the mind/brain) and determine how linguistics fits in with disciplines like the study of vision, auditory perception and reasoning.
NOTE: Students who have received credit for this topic under a LING 398 number may not take this course for credit.
 
LING 298          Selected Topics in Linguistics (3 credits)
Specific topics for this course, and prerequisites relevant in each case, are stated in the Undergraduate Class Schedule.

LING 300          Sociolinguistics (3 credits)
This course studies the beliefs, interrelationships, and values of societal groups as reflected in language.
 
LING 315          Syntax (3 credits)
Prerequisite: LING 200 or equivalent. This course introduces students to syntactic theory in the generative tradition. Topics include structure-building operations, constituency, a variety of movement phenomena, and the relationship between the lexicon and syntactic computation. The focus is on contemporary theoretical frameworks but the course also includes some discussion of how these developed from earlier theories.
 
LING 320          Semantics (3 credits)
Prerequisite: LING 200 or 222 or equivalent. This course introduces the basic notions required for formal analysis of meaning within a theory of language. The central objective is the development of a system for the representation of the logical structure of natural language. Contemporary works in linguistic semantics are critically examined.
 
LING 322          Linguistics and Cognitive Science (3 credits)
Prerequisite: LING 222 or equivalent. This course situates generative linguistics in the cognitive sciences by providing a survey of relevant topics from psychology, artificial intelligence, computer science, ethology, and philosophy.
NOTE: Students who have received credit for this topic under a LING 398 number may not take this course for credit.
 
LING 330          Sanskrit (3 credits)
This course provides an introduction to the fundamentals of Sanskrit grammar. After developing a foundation, students are presented with a selection of short, original texts to read and translate.
 
LING 336          Comparative Indo-European Linguistics (3 credits)
Prerequisite: LING 200 or equivalent. Through a comparative study of the phonology of the various branches of the Indo-European language family (e.g. Indo-Iranian, Hellenic, Italic, Germanic, Slavic, Baltic), this course familiarizes the student with the techniques used in linguistic reconstruction. Emphasis is given to the development and differentiation of languages through time.
 
LING 341          Introduction to Romance Linguistics (3 credits)
A study of the modern Romance languages, especially French, Italian, and Spanish, and their development from Latin.
 
LING 353       Psycholinguistics (3 credits)
Prerequisite: LING 200 or equivalent; or permission of the Department. This course treats current issues in the experimental evaluation of linguistic theories, presenting both methodological concerns and empirical results. Topics covered include sentence processing, speech perception, lexical access and language development.
NOTE: Students who have received credit for this topic under a LING 398 number may not take this course for credit.
 
LING 372          Descriptive and Instrumental Phonetics (3 credits)
Description of speech sounds in articulatory terms. Identification and description of sounds that occur outside the Indo-European family of languages. Description of speech sounds as to their acoustic qualities: frequency, amplitude, pitch, stress. Interpretation of sound spectrograms.
 
LING 373          Phonology (3 credits)
Prerequisite: LING 200 or equivalent. This course examines the fundamentals of distinctive-feature analysis as developed by Jakobson, Chomsky, and Halle. Theoretical concepts and notational techniques are emphasized. Students receive extensive training in data analysis and rule writing.
 
LING 380       Morphology (3 credits)
Prerequisite: LING 373 or equivalent. This course consists of a survey of linguistic morphology, the study of word structure, and the tools used to perform morphological analysis. The course also gives some consideration to the issues relating to a theory of morphology.
NOTE: Students who have received credit for this topic under a LING 398 number may not take this course for credit.
 
LING 398          Selected Topics in Linguistics (3 credits)
Specific topics for this course, and prerequisites relevant in each case, are stated in the Undergraduate Class Schedule.
 
LING 415       Advanced Syntax (3 credits)
Prerequisite: LING 315 with a grade of C- or higher, or equivalent. This course considers current developments in the field of syntactic theory and their application to phenomena such as control, movement out of islands and binding.
 
LING 420       Language Change (3 credits)
Prerequisite: LING 315, 336, 373. This course concentrates on the nature of language change, with an investigation into the relationship between theories of linguistic structure and theories of change. The theoretical foundations of contemporary methods in the study of language change are the central focus.
NOTE: Students who have received credit for this topic under a LING 398 number may not take this course for credit.

LING 421          Non-Indo-European Structures (3 credits)
Prerequisite: LING 315, 373. This course is intended to give the student an in-depth acquaintance with the structure of a language which dif­fers markedly from that of familiar Indo-European languages. The course involves working with a native speaker and/or from textual material.
 
LING 425       Language Acquisition and Universal Grammar (3 credits)
Prerequisite: LING 315, 373. This course presents a survey of theoretical and empirical issues in the study of first language (L1) acquisition by children. Particular attention is paid to the role of Universal Grammar and innateness in explaining L1 acquisition, as well as to the significance of fundamental theoretical notions such as the competence/performance distinction.
 
LING 429       Interfaces in Linguistic Theory (3 credits)
Prerequisite: LING 315, 373. This course presents, in considerable depth, current research on the formal relationships which hold between the modules of grammar, e.g. phonology-syntax, or syntax-semantics. The general problem of interfaces, and their relationship to assumptions such as modularity, are discussed. The particular interface covered may vary from year to year.
NOTE: Students may take this course twice for credit provided the subject matter is different. Students who have received credit for a particular topic under a LING 498 number may not take this course for credit unless the subject matter is different.
 
LING 436          Advanced Indo-European Studies (3 credits)
Prerequisite: LING 336 or equivalent. Detailed study of the synchronic and diachronic grammars of one or more Indo-European dialects essential to the reconstruction of the proto-language. Extensive readings are undertaken in both original texts and in scholarly contributions to their elucidation. Emphasis is placed on current issues and research in the field.
 
LING 437          Problems in Indo-European Comparative Grammar (3 credits)
Prerequisite: LING 336 or equivalent. This course explores one or more areas of Indo-European comparative grammar of particular interest in current research. Extensive reading in the scholarly literature is undertaken with emphasis on the principles by which hypotheses in historical linguistics can be framed and the criteria for testing such hypotheses.
 
LING 446          Comparative Grammar of Greek and Latin (3 credits)
Prerequisite: LING 200 or CLAS 280 or 290 or equivalent. A study of the similarities and differences in the phonology and morphology of Ancient Greek and Latin. Some attention is also given to issues of syntax and the lexicon.
 
LING 447          Mycenaean Greek (3 credits)
Prerequisite: LING 200 or CLAS 280 or equivalent. Dating from the 14th to the 12th century BCE, Mycenaean — the language of the Linear B tablets — is the earliest form of Greek attested. In this course, selected documents will be read, both in transliteration and in the Mycenaean syllabary, with attention both to linguistic and to cultural issues.
 
LING 456          Homeric Greek (3 credits)
Prerequisite: LING 200 or CLAS 280 or equivalent. An examination of the language of Homer, an artificial mixture of dialectal and diachronic variants, a Kunstsprache. Against the background of a study of the comparative and historical grammar of Greek and its development from Proto-Indo-European, the focus is on diachronic aspects of Homeric grammar and diction. Readings are principally from Books One and Three of the Iliad.
 
LING 457          Archaic Latin and the Italic Dialects (3 credits)
Prerequisite: LING 200 or CLAS 290 or equivalent. A study of inscriptions in archaic Latin and the ancient Italic dialects Oscan and Umbrian. Examination of the main features of phonology, morphology, syntax and the lexicon which distinguish Osco-Umbrian from Latin, with reference to their development from Proto-Indo-European.
 
LING 461          Hittite (3 credits)
Prerequisite: LING 336 or equivalent. The fundamentals of Hittite grammar are presented through the extensive reading of texts, both in transliteration and cuneiform. Considerable attention is given to problems of comparative grammar.
 
LING 473       Advanced Phonology (3 credits)
Prerequisite: LING 373 with a grade of C- or higher, or equivalent. This course treats current issues in the theory of phonology, such as syllable structure, stress computation, vowel harmony and tonology. Critical readings from the current theoretical literature form the basis for discussion and study.
NOTE: Students who have received credit for this topic under a LING 498 number may not take this course for credit.
 
LING 475       History of Linguistics (3 credits)
Prerequisite: LING 315, 336, 373. This course examines the history of linguistics, with a particular focus on the structuralist predecessors of contemporary linguistic theorists. Both North American and European schools of thought are considered. Extensive reading of fundamental texts is required.
 
LING 490       Honours Tutorial (3 credits)
Prerequisite: Honours status. This course provides students with the opportunity for advanced research in linguistics under the direct supervision of a faculty member. Students normally prepare a research paper on a topic chosen by the student and with the approval of the supervisor.
NOTE: Students may take this course only once for credit.

LING 495       Tutorial (3 credits)
Prerequisite: Permission of the Department. This course provides students with the opportunity to study a topic of individual interest under the guidance of a faculty member.
NOTE: Students may take this course twice for credit provided the subject matter is different.
 
LING 498          Advanced Topics in Linguistics (3 credits)
Specific topics for this course, and prerequisites relevant in each case, are stated in the Undergraduate Class Schedule.


NON-PROGRAM COURSES:

Hebrew

THE DEPARTMENT RESERVES THE RIGHT TO TRANSFER A STUDENT TO A HIGHER-LEVEL LANGUAGE COURSE IF IT IS DEEMED THAT THE COURSE FOR WHICH THE STUDENT HAS REGISTERED IS NOT APPROPRIATE FOR THE EXTENT OF HIS OR HER KNOWLEDGE OF THE LANGUAGE.

HEBR 210        Introductory Course in Hebrew (6 credits)
A beginners’ course in Hebrew, with readings of classical and modern texts.
NOTE: Students who have taken Hebrew at the Cegep level, or whose schooling has been conducted in Hebrew, will not be admitted to this course.
 
HEBR 241        Intermediate Hebrew I (3 credits)
Prerequisite: HEBR 210 or permission of the Department. This course includes a comprehensive review of Hebrew grammar and syntax and deals with additional details not covered in the introductory course. Practice is provided through compositions and readings of classical and modern Hebrew texts.
NOTE: Students who have received credit for HEBR 250 may not take this course for credit.
 
HEBR 242        Intermediate Hebrew II (3 credits)
Prerequisite: HEBR 241 or permission of the Department. This course continues the comprehensive review of Hebrew grammar and syntax, and deals with additional details not covered in the introductory course. Practice is provided through compositions and readings of classical and modern Hebrew texts.
NOTE: Students who have received credit for HEBR 250 may not take this course for credit.
 
HEBR 310        Topics in Hebrew Literature (3 credits)
Topics for this course will vary; possibilities may include modern Hebrew literature, masterpieces and genres in Hebrew literature, and others. This course is taught in English.
NOTE: Please see the Undergraduate Class Schedule for details.


Modern Languages

The following courses give instruction in languages and cultures not included in any of the Department’s programs.
 
MGRK 290       Modern Greek (6 credits)
This course provides an introduction to the basic elements of modern Greek for the student with no knowledge of the language.
NOTE: Students who have received credit for this topic under an MODL 399 number may not take this course for credit.
 
MGRK 398       Special Topics in Modern Greek (3 credits)
Specific topics for this course, and prerequisites relevant in each case, are stated in the Undergraduate Class Schedule.
 
MIRI 290           Modern Irish (6 credits)
This course provides an introduction to the basic elements of modern Irish for the student with no knowledge of the language.
NOTE: Students who have received credit for this topic under an MODL 399 number may not take this course for credit.
 
MIRI 398           Special Topics in Modern Irish (3 credits)
Specific topics for this course, and prerequisites relevant in each case, are stated in the Undergraduate Class Schedule.
 
MODL 298       Special Topics in Modern Languages (3 credits)
 
MODL 299       Special Topics in Modern Languages (6 credits)
 
Specific topics for these courses, and prerequisites relevant in each case, are stated in the Undergraduate Class Schedule.
 
MODL 398       Special Topics in Modern Languages (3 credits)
 
MODL 399       Special Topics in Modern Languages (6 credits)
 
Specific topics for these courses, and prerequisites relevant in each case, are stated in the Undergraduate Class Schedule.

MODL 498       Advanced Topics in Modern Languages (3 credits)
 
MODL 499       Advanced Topics in Modern Languages (6 credits)
 
Specific topics for these courses, and prerequisites relevant in each case, are stated in the Undergraduate Class Schedule.
 
MRUS 290        Russian (6 credits)
This course provides an introduction to the basic elements of Russian for the student with no knowledge of the language.
NOTE: Students who have received credit for RUSS 330 may not take this course for credit.
 
MRUS 398        Special Topics in Russian (3 credits)
Specific topics for this course, and prerequisites relevant in each case, are stated in the Undergraduate Class Schedule.

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